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Currently, there are very few loss-of-function mutations in micro-RNA genes. Here, we characterize two members of the Arabidopsis MIR159 family, miR159a and miR159b, that are predicted to regulate the expression of a family of seven transcription factors that includes the two redundant GAMYB-like genes, MYB33 and MYB65. Using transfer DNA (T-DNA)(More)
We report on the silencing of codeinone reductase (COR) in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, using a chimeric hairpin RNA construct designed to silence all members of the multigene COR family through RNA interference (RNAi). After gene silencing, the precursor alkaloid (S)-reticuline-seven enzymatic steps upstream of codeinone-accumulated in transgenic(More)
Only plants of the Papaver genus (poppies) are able to synthesize morphinan alkaloids, and cultivation of P. somniferum, opium poppy, remains critical for the production and supply of morphine, codeine and various semi-synthetic analgesics. Opium poppy was transformed with constitutively expressed cDNA of codeinone reductase (PsCor1.1), the penultimate step(More)
The microRNA159 (miR159) family represses the conserved GAMYB-like genes that encode R2R3 MYB domain transcription factors that have been implicated in gibberellin (GA) signaling in anthers and germinating seeds. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the two major miR159 family members, miR159a and miR159b, are functionally specific for two GAMYB-like(More)
We demonstrate that both over-expression and suppression of the gene encoding the morphinan pathway enzyme salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase (SalAT) in opium poppy affects the alkaloid products that accumulate. Over-expression of the gene in most of the transgenic events resulted in an increase in capsule morphine, codeine and thebaine on a dry-weight(More)
BACKGROUND A current challenge of microRNA (miRNA) research is the identification of biologically relevant miRNA:target gene relationships. In plants, high miRNA:target gene complementarity has enabled accurate target predictions, and slicing of target mRNAs has facilitated target validation through rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends (5'-RACE) analysis.(More)
The berberine bridge enzyme cDNA bbe from Papaver somniferum L. was transformed in antisense orientation into seedling explants of the industrial elite line C048-6-14-64. In this way, 84 phenotypically normal To plants derived from embryogenic callus cultures were produced. The selfed progeny of these 84 plants yielded several T1 plants with an altered(More)
Forward genetic screens have identified numerous genes involved in development and metabolism, and remain a cornerstone of biological research. However, to locate a causal mutation, the practice of crossing to a polymorphic background to generate a mapping population can be problematic if the mutant phenotype is difficult to recognize in the hybrid F2(More)
The industrial production and use of nitrogenous fertilizer involves significant environmental and economic costs. Strategies to reduce fertilizer dependency are required to address the world's increasing demand for sustainable food, fibers, and biofuels. Biological nitrogen fixation, a process unique to diazatrophic bacteria, is catalyzed by the(More)