Robert Snoek

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The location and sequence of androgen responsive elements (AREs) in the 5'-flanking DNA of the androgen-regulated rat probasin (PB) gene were determined. The DNA- and steroid-binding domains of the rat androgen receptor [glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-AR1] and the DNA-binding domain and hinge region alone (GST-AR2) were expressed in Escherichia coli as(More)
PURPOSE Progression to the castration-resistant state is the incurable and lethal end stage of prostate cancer, and there is strong evidence that androgen receptor (AR) still plays a central role in this process. We hypothesize that knocking down AR will have a major effect on inhibiting growth of castration-resistant tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN(More)
The functional and structural interactions of two androgen receptor-binding sites in the 5'-flanking DNA of the rat probasin gene were determined. Deletion mapping and DNase I footprinting analysis had previously identified two androgen receptor-binding sites (ARBS) necessary for androgen induction of the probasin gene: ARBS-1, which resembled a(More)
Glucocorticoid and androgen receptors have been shown to function through the same palindromic glucocorticoid response element (GRE) and yet have differential effects on gene transcription. In this study, we examined the functional and structural relationship of the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors with the androgen responsive region (ARR) of the(More)
The androgen receptor (AR), a steroid receptor family member, is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has an integral role in normal prostate development. Alterations in AR-mediated activity can result in abnormal gene expression, dysregulated cell growth and prostate cancer. Coregulator proteins that interact with AR to influence activity and(More)
The ability to induce multiple apoptotic regressions of an androgen-dependent tumor cell population by repeated cycles of androgen withdrawal and replacement may be advantageous in therapeutic strategies aimed at delaying or preventing tumor progression. With greater insight into factors that either initiate or limit apoptosis, more efficient application of(More)
Nuclear and cytosolic forms of a 20-kdalton rat ventral prostate protein were purified and partially sequenced from their N-termini. Isolated nuclei were treated with micrococcal nuclease and extracted in 0.6 M NaCl, and proteins were separated by affinity chromatography on Matrex gel green A, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and fast protein liquid(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of different transactivating regions of the androgen receptor (AR) to the induction of androgen-regulated promoters in poorly (PC3 cells) and well-differentiated (LNCaP cells) prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS PC3 and LNCaP cells were co-transfected with plasmids expressing(More)
An in vitro, cell-free transcription system, based on prostate-derived transcriptional machinery and very powerful androgen response elements (AREs), has been developed. Multiple (p(ARR3)LovTATA) AREs from the androgen-regulated probasin gene were linked to G-free cassettes and used in nuclear extracts prepared from prostate carcinoma cell lines (PC3 and(More)
Aberrant expression of androgen receptor (AR) coregulators has been linked to progression of prostate cancers to castration resistance. Using the repressed transactivator yeast two-hybrid system, we found that TATA binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1) interacted with the AR. In tissue microarrays, TAF1 was shown to steadily increase with duration of(More)