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The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumour biology and therapeutic possibilities remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacological annotation is available. Here we describe the(More)
Oncogenic mutations in the serine/threonine kinase B-RAF (also known as BRAF) are found in 50-70% of malignant melanomas. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that the B-RAF(V600E) mutation predicts a dependency on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascade in melanoma-an observation that has been validated by the success of RAF and(More)
The major transforming protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1, E5, is mainly associated with endomembranes, specifically binding to a cellular protein of relative molecular mass 16,000 (16K). At the same time as transformation, E5 causes the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor receptors. We show here that(More)
The aetiology and cellular mechanism of chronic inflammatory processes are poorly understood. Macrophages act prominently in the inflammatory response and we report here that they express two calcium-binding proteins. The expression of these proteins, referred to as MRP-8 and MRP-14, is specific for cells of myeloid origin, namely granulocytes, monocytes(More)
The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumor biology and therapeutic avenues remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacologic annotation is available 1. Here we describe the Cancer(More)
Caffeine was shown to induce mitotic events in mammalian cells before DNA replication (S phase) was completed. Synchronized BHK cells that were arrested in early S phase underwent premature chromosome condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, morphological "rounding up," and mitosis-specific phosphoprotein synthesis when they were exposed to caffeine. These(More)
PIK3CA gain-of-function mutations are a common oncogenic event in human malignancy 1–4 , making PI3K an attractive target for cancer therapy. Despite the great promise of targeted therapy, resistance often develops, resulting in treatment failure. To elucidate mechanisms of resistance to PI3K-targeted therapy, we constructed a mouse model of breast cancer(More)
The Pap test has effectively reduced the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. However, because of the morphological basis of this test, sensitivity and specificity are less than ideal, a situation that complicates the clinical management of women diagnosed with low-grade cervical abnormalities. In an attempt to understand the molecular basis of(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a well-known cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the regulators effectively driving virus production and HCC progression remain unclear. By using genetically engineered mouse models, we show that overexpression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) accelerated HCC progression, supporting the genomic analysis that an(More)
Bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1) contains two independent transforming genes that have been mapped to the E5 and E6 open reading frames (ORF's). The E5 transforming protein was identified by means of an antiserum against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 20 COOH-terminal amino acids of the E5 ORF. The E5 polypeptide is the smallest viral transforming(More)