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To investigate the tear film in the closed eye, microliter tear samples were collected without overt reflex stimulation throughout the diurnal cycle, with closed eye samples recovered immediately upon eye opening. Samples were subjected to agarose, polyacrylamide, and two-dimensional electrophoresis, coupled with immunofixation, immunoblot, and lectin blot(More)
The tear film is complex and is rich in both peptides and proteins. Physiological factors have been shown to alter the balance of the protein components in the tear film, however, little is known of the precise stimuli that initiate these changes, or their nature and extent. Attention has been directed at the role of tear proteins in the protection of the(More)
PURPOSE To adapt membrane-bound antibody array (MA) technology to characterize the distribution of a wide range of bioactive trace proteins in reflex (RTF) and open-eye (OTF) and closed-eye (CTF) tear samples. METHODS Tears were collected by capillary tube and centrifuged. A commercially available standard MA and a custom array were modified to maximize(More)
PURPOSE Many bioactive proteins including cytokines are reported to increase in dry eye disease although the specific profile and concentration of inflammatory mediators varies considerably from study to study. In part, this variability results from inherent difficulties in quantifying low abundance proteins in a limited sample volume using relatively low(More)
To evaluate the use of stationary phase protein array technology for tear analysis and to characterize the distribution of inflammatory mediators in normal and allergic tears in the open and closed eye states. Microcapillary tube collected Open (OTF) and closed eye tear fluid (CTF) samples from normals (N), from individuals with various active chronic(More)
Although the tear film has been extensively studied as it exists in the open eye state, until recently very little was known as to what happens to the tear film on eye closure. Recent studies have shown that eye closure results in a profound change in the composition, origins, turnover and physiological functions of the tear film. These changes include a(More)
PURPOSE The complement system is part of the innate defense system of the body, and it contributes to inflammatory conditions. The current study examined tears for the presence of complement components, the activity of the components, and the presence of regulatory components. METHODS The significance of a functional complement system in tears was(More)
PURPOSE Reflex human tears bind Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and prevent them from invading corneal epithelial cells. In this study, we assessed the effect of eye closure and the role of sialoglycoprotein (SG) in tears on bacterial binding and invasion. METHODS Human tears (reflex and closed-eye) were collected using a microcapillary tube. Reflex tears(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the effects that mode of sampling and overnight eye closure have on the nature of caseinolytic activity recovered in tear fluid. METHODS Reflex, open and closed (R, O and C) eye tear fluids were collected by microcapillary tubes or from the inferior formix by Schirmer strip. Microcapillary collected samples were centrifuged and(More)
Overnight eye closure induces a shift in the nature and composition of the tear film, from a dynamic reflex tear-rich to a stagnant secretory IgA-rich layer. This is accompanied by the induction of a state of sub-clinical inflammation, as evidenced by increases in albumin levels, plasminogen activation, conversion of complement C3 to C3c, and the(More)