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The XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross complementing) gene is involved in the efficient repair of DNA single-strand breaks formed by exposure to ionizing radiation and alkylating agents. The human gene maps to chromosome 19q13.2, and the mouse homologue maps to the syntenic region on chromosome 7. Two cosmids (approximately 38 kb each) containing the human and mouse(More)
The phenotypically similar hamster mutants irs1 and irs1SF exhibit high spontaneous chromosome instability and broad-spectrum mutagen sensitivity, including extreme sensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. The human XRCC2 and XRCC3 genes, which functionally complement irs1 and irs1SF, respectively, were previously mapped in somatic cell hybrids.(More)
The mutagen-sensitive CHO line irs1SF was previously isolated on the basis of hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and was found to be chromosomally unstable as well as cross-sensitive to diverse kinds of DNA-damaging agents. The analysis of somatic cell hybrids formed between irs1SF and human lymphocytes implicated a human gene (defined as XRCC3; x-ray(More)
Surveillance and repair of DNA damage are essential for maintaining the integrity of the genetic information that is needed for normal development. Several multienzyme pathways, including the excision repair of damaged or missing bases, carry out DNA repair in mammals. We determined the developmental role of the X-ray cross-complementing (Xrcc)-1 gene,(More)
Xrcc1 knockout embryos show increased DNA breakage and apoptosis in tissues of the embryo proper prior to death at embryonic day E6.5. An additional deficiency in Trp53 allows Xrcc1(-/-) embryos to enlarge slightly and initiate gastrulation although ultimately death is delayed by less than 24h. Death presumably results from DNA damage that reaches toxic(More)
In vertebrates, homologous recombinational repair (HRR) requires RAD51 and five RAD51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, RAD51B, RAD51C and RAD51D) that all contain conserved Walker A and B ATPase motifs. In human RAD51D we examined the requirement for these motifs in interactions with XRCC2 and RAD51C, and for survival of cells in response to DNA interstrand(More)
The Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins overlap with those of homologous recombination through FANCD1/BRCA2, but the biochemical functions of other FA proteins are largely unknown. By constructing and characterizing a null fancg mutant (KO40) of hamster CHO cells, we show that FancG protects cells against a broad spectrum of genotoxic agents. KO40 is consistently(More)
Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by ionizing radiation (IR) are a major determinant of cell killing. To determine the contribution of DNA repair pathways to the well-established cell cycle variation in IR sensitivity, we compared the radiosensitivity of wild-type CHO cells to mutant lines defective in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ),(More)
Homologous recombinational repair (HRR) restores chromatid breaks arising during DNA replication and prevents chromosomal rearrangements that can occur from the misrepair of such breaks. In vertebrates, five Rad51 paralogs are identified that contribute in a nonessential but critical manner to HRR proficiency. We constructed and characterized a knockout of(More)
A hotspot for mutagenesis by N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (AAF) was site-specifically modified with 2-aminofluorene (AF) and AAF adducts, and the mutation frequencies and specificities were determined and compared. Previous work has shown that the presence of an AAF adduct in a NarI sequence (GGCGCC) results a high mutation frequency for a CG double base pair(More)