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Ghrelin, a recently described endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced by stomach cells and is a potent circulating orexigen, controlling energy expenditure, adiposity, and growth hormone secretion. However, the functional role of ghrelin in regulation of immune responses remains undefined. Here we report that(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin A (VA) deficiency induces a type 1 cytokine response and exogenously provided retinoids can induce a type 2 cytokine response both in vitro and in vivo. The precise mechanism(s) involved in this phenotypic switch are inconsistent and have been poorly characterized in humans. In an effort to determine if retinoids are capable of inducing(More)
Elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) have been identified as independent risk identifiers for cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease as well as for all-cause mortality. Despite the potential importance of these observations, a definitive pathological role for Hcy or its various metabolites in any of these conditions has not been established.(More)
The aging process is associated with a significant reduction in circulating GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. During this period, immune function also declines. Rodent data suggest that treatment with recombinant human GH (rhGH) or rhIGF-I enhances immune function in normal adult mice. To determine whether rhGH and/or rhIGF-I treatment(More)
Intrahippocamal injections of kainic acid (KA) significantly increase the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in the ipsilateral hippocampus at 2-4 h and 21-45 days post-administration, suggesting the possible involvement of these chemokines in both neurodegenerative and regenerative(More)
BACKGROUND We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha expression by activated human T cells and reduces the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated that the observed effects using ATRA and(More)
Convalescent sera obtained from patients who were recently recovered from an acute measles virus infection were tested for the presence of anti-HIV-1 antibodies by Western blot analysis. While 16% (17/104) of control sera displayed reactive bands to a variety of HIV proteins, 62% (45/73) of convalescent sera demonstrated immunoreactive bands corresponding(More)
Eleven monoclonal antibodies identifying surface antigens present on human T lymphocytes were utilized to investigate the effects of advanced age on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets. Both the proportion and number of lymphocytes recognized by five antibodies reactive with 'pan' T cell antigens (OKT3, OKT11, Leu4, T101 and Lyt3) decreased with age. The(More)
Human peripheral blood T lymphocytes were treated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and with the calcium ionophore A23187. The resulting accumulation of specific mRNA for interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), as well as IL-2 secretion and membrane IL-2R expression were examined. At low(More)
The ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from young and old individuals to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium, to kill Staphylococcus aureus in vitro, and to generate superoxide was determined. Investigation of PMNs from 202 humans, aged 26 to 95 years, failed to demonstrate an age relationship in their ability to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium. The(More)