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Angiogenesis inhibitors are a new class of drugs, for which the general rules involving conventional chemotherapy might not apply. The successful translation of angiogenesis inhibitors to clinical application depends partly on the transfer of expertise from scientists who are familiar with the biology of angiogenesis to clinicians. What are the most common(More)
Deregulation of molecular pathways controlling cell survival and death, including programmed cell death, are thought to be important factors in tumor formation, disease progression, and response to therapy. Studies devoted to analyzing the role of programmed cell death in cancer have been carried out primarily using conventional monolayer cell culture(More)
The contribution of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) to tumor angiogenesis has been controversial, primarily because of their low numbers in blood vessels of untreated tumors. We show that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) leads to an acute mobilization of CEPs, which home to the viable(More)
Tumor cells grown as multicellular spheroids are known to be intrinsically more resistant to a large and diverse array of anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs compared to the same cells grown as dispersed monolayer cell cultures. Some drugs, however, seem relatively insensitive to this multicellular drug resistance, e.g., cisplatinum. Whether the cytotoxic(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) occurs in at least five different isoforms because of alternative splicing of the gene. To investigate the roles of different VEGF isoforms in tumor blood vessel formation and tumorigenicity, the three major isoforms (VEGF 121 , VEGF 165 , and VEGF 189) were overexpressed in an early-stage human melanoma cell line(More)
Neoplastic transformation has been associated with a variety of structural changes in cell surface carbohydrates, most notably increased sialylation and beta 1-6-linked branching of complex-type asparagine (Asn)-linked oligosaccharides (that is, -GlcNAc beta 1-6Man alpha 1-6Man beta 1-). However, little is known about the relevant glycoproteins or how these(More)
For almost half a century, systemic therapy of cancer has been dominated by the use of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. Most of these drugs are DNA-damaging agents or microtubule inhibitors that are designed to inhibit or kill rapidly dividing cells. They are often administered in single doses or short courses of therapy at the highest doses possible without(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of E-cadherin, a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule, in contact inhibition of growth of normal epithelial cells. Many tumor cells also maintain strong intercellular adhesion, and are growth-inhibited by cell- cell contact, especially when grown in three-dimensional culture. To determine if E-cadherin could(More)