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OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the association of exposures to tobacco smoke and environmental lead with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco exposure was based on parent report; lead exposure was(More)
BACKGROUND Prior studies have examined independent effects of a dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism (DRD4-7) and lead exposure on executive functions but not their interaction or the role of sex as a modifier of their effects. METHODS Multivariable analyses were used to examine effects of DRD4-7 genotype, 60-month blood lead level, and sex on spatial(More)
OBJECTIVE Because of significant individual variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, there is increasing interest in identifying genetic predictors of treatment effects. This study examined the role of four catecholamine-related candidate genes in moderating methylphenidate (MPH) dose-response. METHOD Eighty-nine(More)
CONTEXT Mental health disorders, substance use, and domestic violence often occur together. However, studies examining the impact of these conditions in mothers on the well-being of their children have focused only on isolated conditions. OBJECTIVE To examine the cumulative effect of maternal mental health disorders, substance use, and domestic violence(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have examined the effects on children of maternal mental health symptoms other than depressive symptoms or have examined the joint effects of mothers' and fathers' mental health symptoms. OBJECTIVE To examine whether the father's mental health symptoms may modify the association between the mother's mental health and the child's(More)
BACKGROUND Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is routinely detected in > 90% of Americans, promotes experimental asthma in mice. The association of prenatal BPA exposure and wheeze has not been evaluated in humans. OBJECTIVE We examined the relationship between prenatal BPA exposure and wheeze in early childhood. METHODS We(More)
Normal aging of the brain affects the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. These circuits are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Normal aging may therefore influence the symptomatology of psychiatric disorders in the elderly. We investigated motivational behavior that is associated with the function of these circuits, such as apathy,(More)
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. children. Despite African-American children's having a lower reported exposure to tobacco compared to whites, they suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illnesses and have higher levels of serum cotinine than white children. The goal of this study(More)
OBJECTIVE The medical home likely has a positive effect on outpatient outcomes for children with asthma. However, no information is available regarding the impact of medical home quality on health care utilization after hospitalizations. We sought to explore the relationship between medical home quality and readmission risk in children hospitalized for(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure (reported versus biomarker) and rates of readmission for children hospitalized for asthma. METHODS We enrolled a prospective cohort of 774 children aged 1 to 16 years admitted for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing. The primary outcome was at least 1 asthma- or wheeze-related(More)