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OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the association of exposures to tobacco smoke and environmental lead with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco exposure was based on parent report; lead exposure was(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the US national prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and whether prevalence, recognition, and treatment vary by socioeconomic group. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Nationally representative sample of the US population from 2001 to 2004. PARTICIPANTS Eight- to 15-year-old children (N = 3082) in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of high-risk (cancer-associated) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in U.S. women, identify sociodemographic factors associated with infection, and explore the implications for prevention of HPV-related disease in the vaccination era. METHODS Women aged 14-59 years (n=1,921) participating in the 2003-2004 National(More)
OBJECTIVE The study objective was to determine the independent and joint associations of prenatal tobacco and childhood lead exposures with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as defined by current diagnostic criteria, in a national sample of US children. METHODS Data are from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the joint effects of a dopamine transporter (DAT) polymorphism and maternal prenatal smoking on childhood hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness. STUDY DESIGN A cohort of 161 children was followed prospectively from age 6 months to 60 months. Primary outcomes were the DSM-IV hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive scales of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the association of state income inequality and individual household income with the mental and physical health of women with young children. DESIGN Cross sectional study. Individual level data (outcomes, income, and other sociodemographic covariates) from a 1991 follow up survey of a birth cohort established in 1988. State level(More)
BACKGROUND Prior studies have examined independent effects of a dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism (DRD4-7) and lead exposure on executive functions but not their interaction or the role of sex as a modifier of their effects. METHODS Multivariable analyses were used to examine effects of DRD4-7 genotype, 60-month blood lead level, and sex on spatial(More)
OBJECTIVE Because of significant individual variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, there is increasing interest in identifying genetic predictors of treatment effects. This study examined the role of four catecholamine-related candidate genes in moderating methylphenidate (MPH) dose-response. METHOD Eighty-nine(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the patterns and correlates of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy. METHODS We examined socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical risk factors associated with maternal smoking in a nationally representative cohort of women (n = 8285) who were surveyed 17 +/- 5 months and again 35 +/- 5 months after delivery.(More)
Control and efficacy are ideally suited as "bridges" or linking constructs for social scientists working at different levels of analysis. Control and efficacy depend on the fit between individuals and the social systems in which they are embedded, and control and efficacy have measurable effects on neurotransmitter levels and endocrine responses. This(More)