Robert S. Hoffman

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Metals such as iron and copper are critical to living organisms, whereas other metals such as lead and arsenic have no known biologic role. Any metals in large amounts may cause toxicity. Many metals cause pervasive systemic effects involving the nervous system, which can be subtle in some cases. Although challenging, the diagnosis and treatment of metal(More)
INTRODUCTION Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is broadly used for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, its efficacy and practical modalities remain controversial. OBJECTIVES To assess HBO in patients poisoned with CO. DESIGN Two prospective randomized trial on two parallel groups. SETTING Critical Care Unit, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches,(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to drugs and toxins is a major cause for patients' visits to the emergency department (ED). METHODS Recommendations for the use of clinical laboratory tests were prepared by an expert panel of analytical toxicologists and ED physicians specializing in clinical toxicology. These recommendations were posted on the world wide web and(More)
Although the putative pharmacological targets of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) abused in "K2" and "Spice" are similar to Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC), it remains unclear why SCB toxicity is similar yet different from marijuana. There are obvious potency and efficacy differences, but also important metabolic differences that help explain the unique(More)
An outbreak of cholinergic poisoning occurred in New York City during a 3-day period. Seven individuals from three families of South American origin were affected. Signs and symptoms of illness included dry skin, hyperthermia, tachycardia, dilated pupils, agitation, and hallucinations. Onset of illness in all cases was temporally associated with consumption(More)
The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed(More)
Methylene blue is used primarily in the treatment of patients with methemoglobinemia. Most recently, methylene blue has been used as a treatment for refractory distributive shock from a variety of causes such as sepsis and anaphylaxis. Many studies suggest that the nitric oxide–cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO–cGMP) pathway plays a significant role in the(More)
A literature review performed by the EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup highlighted deficiencies in the existing literature, especially the reporting of case studies. Although general reporting guidelines exist for case studies, there are none in the specific field of extracorporeal treatments in toxicology. Our goal was to construct(More)
INTRODUCTION Poison Control Centers (PCCs) play an integral role in the preparation for and management of poison emergencies. Large-scale public health disasters, caused by both natural and human factors, may result in a drastic increase in the number of inquiries received and handled by PCCs in short periods of time. In order to plan and prepare for such(More)