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PURPOSE We report a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial of bilateral stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus for localization-related epilepsy. METHODS Participants were adults with medically refractory partial seizures, including secondarily generalized seizures. Half received stimulation and half no stimulation during a 3-month(More)
Artificial CSF containing 12mEq/1 of potassium (4 times normal concentration) was perfused over the surface of normal neocortex in 10 locally or barbiturate anesthetized cats. Extracellular potassium concentrations ([K+]OS) were measured as a function of time to 8 h and of depth to 3 mm. Analysis of the [K+]O versus depth and [K+]O versus time profiles(More)
Safe parameters for electrical cortical stimulation in humans are difficult to estimate from the animal experimental literature. We therefore examined the light microscopic histology at a total of 11 sites of direct subdural electrical stimulation, taken as part of anterior temporal lobectomies in 3 patients. Stimulations had been done through 3.175 mm(More)
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE) have come to consensus definitions for the terms epileptic seizure and epilepsy. An epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain(More)
Little is known about what pathways subserve mirth and its expression laughter. We present three patients with gelastic seizures and laughter elicited by electrical stimulation of the cortex who provide some insight into the mechanisms of laughter and its emotional concomitants. The first patient had seizures manifested by laughter without a subjective(More)
Classic neurosurgical teaching holds that once the Rolandic fissure (Rf) has been located, there are distinct differentiated primary motor and sensory functional units confined within a narrow cortical strip: Brodmann's Areas 4 and 6 for primary motor units in front of the Rf and 3, 1, and 2 for sensory units behind the Rf. To test this assumption, we(More)
Alterations in a variety of neurotransmitter systems have been identified in experimental models of epilepsy and in brain tissue from patients with intractable temporal lobe seizures. The availability of new high-affinity radioligands permits the study of some neuroreceptors in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). We previously characterized the in(More)
Neonatal treatment of Long-Evans Hooded rats with the cholesterol synthesis inhibitor (CSI) AY9944 has been shown to increase occurrence of spike-waves in EEG recordings and decrease benzodiazepines sensitivity of GABA(A) receptor-mediated responses in neurons from the thalamic reticular nuclei (nRt, Wu et al., 2004). The present experiments were designed(More)
Myelin deposition and maintenance are critical to proper function of the mammalian nervous system. Previous investigations of myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) were hampered by the lack of an in vitro system that can faithfully reproduce in vivo events yet is amenable to biochemical investigation. We have developed a procedure, based on(More)