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A proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer based on time-of-flight mass spectrometry is described. This instrument couples a radioactive ion source and drift tube with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Volatile organic compounds in the gas phase with concentrations at the parts per billion by volume level can be detected in a matter of(More)
The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from(More)
The technique of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) couples a proton transfer reagent, usually H3O+, with a drift tube and mass spectrometer to determine concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Here we describe a first attempt to use chemical ionization (CI) reagents other than proton transfer species inside a PTR-MS instrument. The(More)
The performance of a new chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS) util-ising the environment chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric Photochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber-Forschungzentrum Jülich, Germany) is described. The work took place as part of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition and Change the European NeTwork(More)
One hundred and eighty-seven patients who had surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect between 1958 and 1975 were followed for up to 21 years. there were 17 late sudden deaths of which eight occurred in completely fit patients while nine were already under medical care. In an attempt to elucidate possible risk factors and reoperative and serial(More)
The prospects for exploiting proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) in medical diagnostics are illustrated through a series of case studies. Measurements of acetone levels in the breath of 68 healthy people are presented along with a longitudinal study of a single person over a period of 1 month. The median acetone(More)
A young man had a congenital sinus of Valsalva aneurysm originating from the right coronary sinus, complicated by fistulas draining into both right atrium and right ventricle, as well as a congenitally abnormal aortic valve with mild aortic insufficiency. His dramatic clinical presentation, with the sudden appearance of severe biventricular cardiac failure(More)
The performance of a new chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS) utilising the environment chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric Photochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber – Forschungzentrum J ¨ ulich, Ger-many) is described. The work took place as part of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Com-5 position and Change the European(More)
A drift tube capable of simultaneously functioning as an ion funnel is demonstrated in proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for the first time. The ion funnel enables a much higher proportion of ions to exit the drift tube and enter the mass spectrometer than would otherwise be the case. An increase in the detection sensitivity for volatile(More)