Robert Rutten

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Copying permitted for non-commercial educational purposes only. R.J. Rutten asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of these notes. In no way can he be held responsible for any liability with respect to these notes. These lecture notes are freely available as a service of the European Solar Magnetism Network These lecture notes still evolve;(More)
It is widely believed that the heating of the chromosphere in quiet-Sun internetwork regions is provided by dissipation of acoustic waves that are excited by the convective motions close to the top of the convection zone and in the photospheric overshoot layer. This view lately became challenged by observations suggesting that the acoustic energy flux into(More)