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Correlations between spike trains can strongly modulate neuronal activity and affect the ability of neurons to encode information. Neurons integrate inputs from thousands of afferents. Similarly, a number of experimental techniques are designed to record pooled cell activity. We review and generalize a number of previous results that show how correlations(More)
Networks of model neurons with balanced recurrent excitation and inhibition produce irregular and asynchronous spiking activity. We extend the analysis of balanced networks to include the known dependence of connection probability on the spatial separation between neurons. In the continuum limit we derive that stable, balanced firing rate solutions require(More)
Depletion of synaptic neurotransmitter vesicles induces a form of short term depression in synapses throughout the nervous system. This plasticity affects how synapses filter presynaptic spike trains. The filtering properties of short term depression are often studied using a deterministic synapse model that predicts the mean synaptic response to a(More)
The fact that the eigenvalues of the family of matrices A(t) do not determine the stability of non-autonomous differential equations x = A(t)x is well known. This point is often illustrated using examples in which the matrices A(t) have constant eigenvalues with negative real part, but the solutions of the corresponding differential equation grow in time.(More)
The cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been shown to have multiple biological activities against many cellular targets. The present studies were designed to determine whether these activities extended to the neutrophil (PMN). Initially, we investigated the ability of IL-6 to modulate PMN-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The presence of IL-6(More)
We investigated the ability of the lymphokine, interleukin-4 (IL-4), to function as a neutrophil (PMN) activator. IL-4 enhanced PMN-mediated killing of opsonized bacteria (by up to 91.6% at 3 units of IL-4; p less than 0.05). IL-4 was a weak secondary granule secretagogue and did not by itself generate a respiratory burst. However, IL-4 did increase in a(More)
Correlations between neuronal spike trains affect network dynamics and population coding. Overlapping afferent populations and correlations between presynaptic spike trains introduce correlations between the inputs to downstream cells. To understand network activity and population coding, it is therefore important to understand how these input correlations(More)
Electron microscopy of bacterized and axenic trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica showed only slight differences in ultrastructure between the two. As with other species of Entamoeba so far studied, this species lacks typical mitochondrial structures and formed endoplasmic reticulum. Dense clusters of glycogen particles are especially characteristic in(More)
High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used treatment for Parkinson's disease, but its effects on neural activity in basal ganglia circuits are not fully understood. DBS increases the excitation of STN efferents yet decouples STN spiking patterns from the spiking patterns of STN synaptic targets. We propose(More)