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Current thinking about Pavlovian conditioning differs substantially from that of 20 years ago. Yet the changes that have taken place remain poorly appreciated by psychologists generally. Traditional descriptions of conditioning as the acquired ability of one stimulus to evoke the original response to another because of their pairing are shown to be(More)
Four experiments are reported which demonstrate the ability of an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) presentation following extinction to partially reinstate the conditioned response. These experiments are interpreted in terms of the strengthening of an extinction-reduced UCS representation. The first two experiments address alternative interpretations in terms(More)
The purpose of this review is to bring to the attention of neuroscientists some of the current thinking of psychologists who study learning processes from a behavioral perspective. The past 20 years have seen enormous changes in the ways that psychologists conceptualize and study elementary learning processes; however, many of those changes are poorly(More)
  • R A Rescorla
  • 2000
When an AB stimulus compound is reinforced or nonreinforced, there are associative changes in both A and B elements. In many contemporary theories those changes are viewed as governed by a common error term, computed as the discrepancy between the total associative strength of the AB compound and that supported by the trial consequence. This implies that if(More)
A novel conception of the conditions producing Pavlovian conditioning was proposed. The implications of this proposal for the choice of controls for nonassociative effects and for the notion of inhibition were discussed. [The Science Citation Index® (SCI®) and the Social Sciences Citation Index® (SSCI®) indicate that this paper has been cited in over 405(More)
Spontaneous recovery from extinction is one of the most basic phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Although it can be studied by using a variety of designs, some procedures are better than others for identifying the involvement of underlying learning processes. A wide range of different learning mechanisms has been suggested as being engaged by extinction,(More)
Three sign-tracking experiments using pigeon subjects examined the contextual dependence of extinction after conditioning. Renewal of extinguished responding occurred when testing occurred in a different context, using a variety of different renewal designs. In each case, a within-subject design ensured that the various contexts were equivalent in their(More)
  • R A Rescorla
  • 2001
In four experiments a compound of a previously conditioned excitor and a neutral stimulus was either reinforced with food or nonreinforced. Two experiments used a magazine approach procedure in rats, and two used an autoshaping procedure in pigeons. All experiments employed a novel compound test procedure, which permitted evaluation of the size of the(More)
  • R A Rescorla
  • 2001
Five Pavlovian magazine approach experiments with rat subjects examined the mechanisms by which reconditioning restores extinguished responding. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 found that retraining did not destroy the spontaneous recovery with the passage of time that is characteristic of extinguished stimuli. Experiments 4 and 5 found evidence that retaining(More)
  • R A Rescorla
  • 2000
Five experiments used rat subjects to investigate the impact on extinction of the presence of other conditioned stimuli. In Experiments 1 (Pavlovian magazine approach) and 2 (instrumental discriminative training), an excitatory stimulus (X) was extinguished alone, in conjunction with a previously reinforced other stimulus (A), in conjunction with previously(More)