Robert Reinhardt

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Large amounts of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) released from cellular sources under pathological conditions such as ischemia may activate purinoceptors of the P2X and P2Y types. In the present study, the expression of the P2X7 receptor-subtype in the brain cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats was investigated using a permanent focal cerebral ischemia(More)
1. The presence of ionotropic P2X receptors, targets of ATP in fast synaptic transmission, as well as metabotropic P2Y receptors, known to activate K(+) currents in cultured neostriatal neurones, was investigated in medium-spiny neurones and cholinergic interneurones contained in neostriatal brain slices from 5-26-day-old rats. 2. In these cells,(More)
The present study describes the measurement of endogenous nucleoside di- and triphosphate contents (ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP, ADP, GDP and UDP) in rat neocortical brain slices and mixed neuronal/astrocytic corticoencephalic cultures. Determination was by means of anion-exchange HPLC using a binary gradient of 0.3 M ammonium carbonate and water. In addition, a new(More)
Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been suggested as able to reduce hypoxia induced neuronal damage. The aim of the study was to compare the impact of different reoxygenation strategies on early metabolical (purine nucleotide content determined by HPLC) and morphological changes (index of cell injury after celestine blue/acid fuchsin staining) of hypoxically(More)
In a first series of experiments, the morphological changes of corticoencephalic cells by ischaemia were determined by staining with celestine blue-acid fuchsin in order to classify cells as intact, dark basophilic (supposedly reversibly injured) and preacidophilic or acidophilic (profoundly injured). Hypoxia and glucose-deprivation (in vitro ischaemia)(More)
Membrane currents and changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured in HEK293 cells transfected with the human P2X3 receptor (HEK293-hP2X3). RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry indicated the additional presence of endogenous P2Y1 and to some extent P2Y4 receptors. P2 receptor agonists induced inward currents in HEK293-hP2X3 cells with(More)
Transcriptional networks defining stemness in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are largely unknown. We used the proximal cis-regulatory element (pCRE) of the retina-specific homeobox gene 2 (rx2) to address such a network. Lineage analysis in the fish retina identified rx2 as marker for multipotent NSCs. rx2-positive cells located in the peripheral ciliary(More)
Enhancers have been described to evolve by permutation without changing function. This has posed the problem of how to predict enhancer elements that are hidden from alignment-based approaches due to the loss of co-linearity. Alignment-free algorithms have been proposed as one possible solution. However, this approach is hampered by several problems(More)
To date, the most common forms of real-time messaging between individuals on the Internet have been text-based, including e-mail and instant messaging. Studies have suggested that Internet users overall spend more hours online with e-mail and instant messaging (IM) than with all other web browsing.<sup>1</sup> Macromedia's new technology opens up exciting(More)