Robert Reinhardt

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Large amounts of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) released from cellular sources under pathological conditions such as ischemia may activate purinoceptors of the P2X and P2Y types. In the present study, the expression of the P2X7 receptor-subtype in the brain cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats was investigated using a permanent focal cerebral ischemia(More)
1. The presence of ionotropic P2X receptors, targets of ATP in fast synaptic transmission, as well as metabotropic P2Y receptors, known to activate K(+) currents in cultured neostriatal neurones, was investigated in medium-spiny neurones and cholinergic interneurones contained in neostriatal brain slices from 5-26-day-old rats. 2. In these cells,(More)
Membrane currents and changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured in HEK293 cells transfected with the human P2X3 receptor (HEK293-hP2X3). RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry indicated the additional presence of endogenous P2Y1 and to some extent P2Y4 receptors. P2 receptor agonists induced inward currents in HEK293-hP2X3 cells with(More)
During embryogenesis, tissue specification is triggered by the expression of a unique combination of developmental genes and their expression in time and space is crucial for successful development. Synexpression groups are batteries of spatiotemporally co-expressed genes that act in shared biological processes through their coordinated expression. Although(More)
Transcriptional networks defining stemness in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are largely unknown. We used the proximal cis-regulatory element (pCRE) of the retina-specific homeobox gene 2 (rx2) to address such a network. Lineage analysis in the fish retina identified rx2 as marker for multipotent NSCs. rx2-positive cells located in the peripheral ciliary(More)
A fluorescein derivative is described which can be used as a normal phosphoramidite in oligonucleotide synthesis, giving high yields of fluorescein labelled sequencing primers. The labelled primers were used in automated DNA-sequence analysis without modification of existing protocols, the computer-processed sequences being reproducibly readable up to 400(More)
Enhancers have been described to evolve by permutation without changing function. This has posed the problem of how to predict enhancer elements that are hidden from alignment-based approaches due to the loss of co-linearity. Alignment-free algorithms have been proposed as one possible solution. However, this approach is hampered by several problems(More)
Strong hydrogen-bonding forces between the Thr26 and Thr26' of the protease stabilize the internal cage of the dimeric triad of the aspartyl HIV-1 protease (Asp25Thr26Gly27 and Asp25' Thr26'Gly27', respectively). The interaction of reversible inhibitors of HIV-1 protease is based on (i) strong hydrogen-bonding forces between the main chain (--CONH--) oxygen(More)
The session presents a case study of a Web site specifically designed as a RIA. The structure of the Web site,, is based upon traditional online forums wherein a community of members shares ideas and opinions within moderated or un-moderated discussion areas. Members, however, can also utilize Web cams and microphones to add audio/video(More)
Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentiate into multiple lineages including chondro- and osteogenic fates and function in establishing the hematopoietic compartment of the bone marrow. Here, we analyze the emergence of different MSC types during mouse limb and long bone development. In particular, PDGFRαposSCA-1pos (PαS) cells and mouse(More)