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1 Overview BURG is a program that generates a fast tree parser using BURS (Bottom-Up Rewrite System) technology. It accepts a cost-augmented tree grammar and emits a C program that discovers in linear time an optimal parse of trees in the language described by the grammar. BURG has been used to construct fast optimal instruction selectors for use in code(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing maximally effective doses of a sulfonylurea as monotherapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study conducted at 101 sites in the U.S. After a 4-week,(More)
1 R ecent research has shown that adi-pose tissue is not simply an inert storage depot for lipids but is also an important endocrine organ that plays a key role in the integration of endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory signals for the control of energy homeostasis. The adipocyte has been shown to secrete a variety of bioactive proteins into the(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin resistance has a causal role in type 2 diabetes. Serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a protein secreted by adipocytes, are increased in insulin-resistant states. Experiments in mice suggest that elevated RBP4 levels cause insulin resistance. We sought to determine whether serum RBP4 levels correlate with insulin resistance(More)
T ype 2 diabetes is now epidemic. In the U.S., there has been a 61% increase in incidence between 1990 and 2001 (1). There are currently 1.5 million new cases per year, and the prevalence in 2005 was almost 21 million (2). The epidemic has affected developed and developing countries alike, and the worldwide prevalence of diabetes is projected to increase(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease and conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions that may prevent or delay such occurrences are of great clinical importance. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to examine whether pioglitazone can reduce the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Obeticholic acid (OCA; INT-747, 6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid) is a semisynthetic derivative of the primary human bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid, the natural agonist of the farnesoid X receptor, which is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. In animal models, OCA decreases insulin resistance and hepatic(More)
The present study reports preliminary data from two unselected samples of carefully diagnosed autistic subjects (children and adults) and an assessment procedure that includes a large sample of items, appropriate for lower-functioning autistic subjects, with multiple presentations within and between sessions 1 week apart. The study seeks to determine (1)(More)
We studied the metabolic effects of 2-wk fructose feeding as the sweetener in the diet of seven non-insulin-dependent diabetic individuals. The data demonstrated reduced postprandial hyperglycemia to an oral glucose challenge after 14 days without a significant difference in insulin response. There was no change in the markedly blunted glucose response to a(More)
To determine whether the serine/threonine kinase Akt (also known as protein kinase B) is activated in vivo by insulin administration in humans, and whether impaired activation of Akt could play a role in insulin resistance, we measured the activity and phosphorylation of Akt isoforms in skeletal muscle from 3 groups of subjects: lean, obese nondiabetic, and(More)