Robert Pease Smith

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Powassan virus (POWV) disease is a rare human disease caused by a tick-borne encephalitis group flavivirus maintained in a transmission cycle between Ixodes cookei and other ixodid ticks and small and medium-sized mammals. During 1958-1998, only 27 POWV disease cases (mostly Powassan encephalitis) were reported from eastern Canada and the northeastern(More)
In a mail survey, 171 Hitchcock Clinic patients with giardiasis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group of 684 clinic patients with respect to potential risk factors. Households with shallow well or surface water sources had an odds ratio (OR) for giardiasis of 2.1 (95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.3-3.2) compared with households with(More)
To determine whether the presence of nonpathogenic piroplasms may confound field estimates of risk of Babesia microti infection, we identified sporozoites infecting the salivary glands of deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) by parallel microscopy and polymerase chain reaction assays. Piroplasms were evident in 14.4% of adult ticks from sites in the northcentral and(More)
Monhegan is an isolated 237-ha island lying 16 km off the coast of Maine. Introduced to the island in 1955, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman, reached a density of approximately 37/km2 by the mid-1990s. Black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, first noticed in the late 1980s, flourished thereafter. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus(More)
Human babesiosis in the northeastern United States caused by Babesia microti (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) is mainly reported from coastal New England sites, where deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) are common. However, the piroplasm has been detected in microtine rodents elsewhere in association with I. angustus or other nidicolous ticks, suggesting that the agent(More)
BACKGROUND Lyme disease has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Diagnosis is usually based on the clinical and serologic picture rather than on microbiological confirmation. OBJECTIVE To examine the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of early Lyme disease in patients with microbiologically confirmed erythema migrans. DESIGN(More)
Borrelia garinii is the most neurotropic of the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato that cause Lyme disease in Europe, where it is transmitted to avian and mammalian reservoir hosts and to humans by Ixodes ricinus. B. garinii is also maintained in an enzootic cycle in seabirds by I. uriae, a tick found at high latitudes in both the Northern and(More)
The contribution of migratory and resident birds to the introduction of Lyme disease will vary with the degree to which various species expose themselves to, and are infested by, juvenile vector ticks, and their ability to support and transmit the infectious agent. To examine the relative contribution of various passerine species during the emergence of(More)
The abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say (Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin), the vector tick of the Lyme disease spirochete and other human pathogens, is related to the presence of its primary reproductive stage host, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman). However, this relationship has not been quantified in terms that would(More)
In 1989, a free-of-charge, statewide tick identification program was initiated in Maine, 1 yr after the first Ixodes scapularis Say (=I. dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin) ticks were reported in the state. This article summarizes data from 18 continuous years of tick submissions during which >24,000 ticks of 14 species were identified. Data(More)