Robert Peach

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B7-0 or B7-2 (CD86) is a T cell costimulatory molecule that binds the same receptors (CD28 and CTLA-4) as B7-1 (CD80), but shares with it only approximately 25% sequence identity and is expressed earlier during an immune response. Here we show that human CD86 maintains similar (within approximately 2- to 3-fold) overall receptor binding and T cell(More)
Cytokine storm during viral infection is a prospective predictor of morbidity and mortality, yet the cellular sources remain undefined. Here, using genetic and chemical tools to probe functions of the S1P(1) receptor, we elucidate cellular and signaling mechanisms that are important in initiating cytokine storm. Whereas S1P(1) receptor is expressed on(More)
Current success in organ transplantation is dependent upon the use of calcineurin-inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimens. Unfortunately, current immunotherapy targets molecules with ubiquitous expression resulting in devastating non-immune side effects. T-cell costimulation has been identified as a new potential immunosuppressive target. The best(More)
Glycosaminoglycan-modified isoforms of CD44 have been implicated in growth factor presentation at sites of inflammation. In the present study we show that COS cell transfectants expressing CD44 isoforms containing the alternatively spliced exon V3 are modified with heparan sulfate (HS). Binding studies with three HS-binding growth factors, basic-fibroblast(More)
CD44 is a polymorphic glycoprotein expressed on the surface of many tissues and cell lines which has been implicated in a number of cellular functions including lymphocyte homing to mucosal lymphoid tissue (Peyers patches), leukocyte activation, lymphopoiesis, and tumor metastasis. The predominant isoform found on human leukocytes, CD44H, is a receptor for(More)
T cell surface receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 are homologous members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), each comprising a single V-like extracellular domain. CD28 and CTLA-4 bind to the B7-1 and B7-2 counter-receptors on antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby triggering a costimulatory pathway important for optimal T cell activation in vitro and in(More)
T lymphocyte receptor CTLA-4 binds costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) with high avidity and negatively regulates T cell activation. CTLA-4 functions at the cell surface, yet is primarily localized in intracellular vesicles. Here, we demonstrate cycling of CTLA-4 between intracellular stores and the cell surface. Intracellular vesicles(More)
The biology of the normal colonic mucosa suggests that colon cancer originates from normal colon stem cells. CD44 cancer stem cells have been identified in breast and prostate cancer, and we therefore examined whether CD44 similarly identified colon cancer stem cells. Initial assays found CD44(hi) colon tumor cells to have enhanced soft agar colony-forming(More)
T lymphocyte receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 bind costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on antigen-presenting cells and regulate T cell activation. While distinct functional roles have been ascribed to each of these molecules, little is known about how they interact. To better characterize these interactions, we have used surface plasmon resonance(More)
The structure of human CTLA-4 reveals that residues Met 99, Tyr 100 and Tyr 104 of the M99 YPPPY104 motif are adjacent to a patch of charged surface residues on the A‘GFCC’ face of the protein. Mutation of these residues, which are conserved in the CTLA-4/CD28 family, significantly reduces binding to CD80 and/or CD86, implicating this patch as a ligand(More)