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BACKGROUND & AIMS Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for the development of the enteric nervous system during embryogenesis. We have observed the presence of Gdnf transcripts in the gastrointestinal tract of adult mice, and its early up-regulation after inflammation. We therefore investigated the effects of GDNF on enteric neuronal(More)
The middle ear apparatus is composed of three endochondrial ossicles (the stapes, incus and malleus) and two membranous bones, the tympanic ring and the gonium, which act as structural components to anchor the ossicles to the skull. Except for the stapes, these skeletal elements are unique to mammals and are derived from the first and second branchial(More)
BACKGROUND The integration of host genetics, environmental triggers and the microbiota is a recognised factor in the pathogenesis of barrier function diseases such as IBD. In order to determine how these factors interact to regulate the host immune response and ecological succession of the colon tissue-associated microbiota, we investigated the temporal(More)
BACKGROUND Prokineticin 2 (PROK2) is an inflammatory cytokine-like molecule expressed predominantly by macrophages and neutrophils infiltrating sites of tissue damage. Given the established role of prokineticin signaling on gastrointestinal function, we have explored Prok2 gene expression in inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and assessed(More)
Pettigrew's (1979) prediction that relative to in-group behaviour, negative out-group behaviour would be attributed to internal characteristics, was tested in the context of Northern Ireland's continued conflict. Catholic and Protestant respondents were presented with newsreel footage depicting scenes of in- and out-group violence. One showed a Protestant(More)
Kid1 encodes a transcriptional repressor implicated in the differentiation of renal epithelial cells. Here we report the characterisation of Kid3, a novel mouse gene related to Kid1. Kid3 encodes a C 2 H 2 zinc finger protein with an N-terminal KRAB transcriptional repression domain. It maps to chromosome 11, adjacent to Kid1 and another related gene Kid2.(More)
GPR39 is a GPCR implicated as a regulator of gastrointestinal motility, although the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report that GPR39 is expressed by a specific cell population cultured from mouse small intestine muscle layers, which was subsequently identified as fibroblast-like cells (FLCs) that have recently been shown to modulate gut motility.(More)
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