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Interspecies scaling is a useful tool for the prediction of pharmacokinetic parameters from animals to humans, and it is often used for estimating a first-time in human dose. The knowledge of pharmacokinetics in veterinary species is important for dosage selection, particularly in the treatment of large zoo animal species, such as elephants, giant cats and(More)
Products for animal health commercialization follow a structured progression from initial concept through to regulatory approval. Typically, products are developed for use in either food animals or companion animals. These can be for the intention of disease intervention, productivity enhancement or improvement in a quality of life capacity. The animal(More)
Antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge that impacts both human and veterinary health care. The resilience of microbes is reflected in their ability to adapt and survive in spite of our best efforts to constrain their infectious capabilities. As science advances, many of the mechanisms for microbial survival and resistance element transfer have been(More)
Lack of approved pharmaceutical agents and/or pharmacokinetic data in the literature for exotic, wildlife, and zoo species is a major issue for veterinarians. These practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species with little or no scientific basis to support this decision. There is little(More)
Despite the pharmacological and statistical advances that have occurred since the early days of bioequivalence assessments, there remain many unresolved issues associated with the bioequivalence evaluation of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals. While many of these issues are common to both human and veterinary medicine, there are also challenges specific(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess oral bioavailability (F) and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the R- and S-enantiomers of ketoprofen administered IV and orally to captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). ANIMALS 5 adult Asian elephants. PROCEDURE Elephants received single treatments of racemic ketoprofen at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg, administered IV and orally, in a(More)
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) meloxicam is a very popular anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic agent used in veterinary medicine. To determine the pharmacokinetics of this NSAID in rabbits following a single dose and 10-day period of dosing, eight clinically normal, 8-mo-old New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were(More)
Azithromycin is the first of a class of antibiotics classified as azalides. Six ball pythons (Python regius) were given a single dose of azithromycin at 10 mg/kg p.o. and i.v. in a crossover design. Serial blood samples were collected for unchanged azithromycin and to determine, if possible, the structure and number of circulating azithromycin metabolites.(More)
The pharmacokinetic parameters of carfentanil and naltrexone were determined in the common eland (Taurotragus oryx). Six adult females were immobilized with xylazine (0.23 +/- 0.03 mg/kg i.m.) and carfentanil (0.0169 +/- 0.0005 mg/kg i.m.) for a 45-min period, during which time routine health care procedures were performed. Heart and respiration rates and(More)