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Peptides bound or linked to heat-shock proteins (HSPs) of microbial or mammalian origin have been shown to elicit potent antigen-specific immunity. Some members of the HSP family, such as hsp60, hsp70, hsp90 and gp96, are able also to stimulate cells of the innate immune system directly and thus, act as 'danger'-signaling molecules. This effect is(More)
Microbial products are sensed through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and trigger a program of dendritic cell (DC) maturation that enables DCs to activate T cells. Although an accepted hallmark of this response is eventual down-regulation of DC endocytic capacity, we show that TLR ligands first acutely stimulate antigen macropinocytosis, leading to enhanced(More)
The administration of cAMP-elevating agents affects a number of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in autoimmunity and inflammation, the isolated effects of cAMP-elevating agents on the function of DCs was examined. In a dose-dependent manner, 8-Bromo cAMP, prostaglandin E(2), and(More)
BACKGROUND The yeast Malassezia furfur (M. furfur), present in the normal microflora of human skin, can act as an allergen that incites specific IgE reactivity and T cell proliferation in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The role of antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in the onset and maintenance of AD is not well established. OBJECTIVE The objective(More)
The cytotoxic effector functions of NK cells are important for enabling the immune system to cope efficiently with infection and malignancy. Two major mechanisms of cytotoxicity are perforin/granzyme- and death receptor-mediated (e.g., FASL- or TRAIL-mediated) induction of cell death. Many studies, including studies in perforin-deficient animals, have led(More)
NK cells provide a line of defense against tumors and virus-infected cells that have lost the expression of one or more MHC class I isoforms. Here, we investigate whether inhibitors of apoptosis can block the rejection of tumors mediated by NK cells, by introducing the long form of Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme-associated(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells have been thought to depend largely on perforin-mediated mechanisms for the induction of cell death in targets. However, this view has more recently been challenged. It is now clear that NK cells are capable of using death ligands like Fas ligand (FasL) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to induce(More)
The regulation of dendritic cells is far from fully understood. Interestingly, several recent reports have suggested a role for natural killer cells in affecting dendritic cell maturation and function upon direct contact between the cells. It is not known if this interaction takes place also in vivo, or if a potential interaction of natural killer cells and(More)
The immune system plays an important role in facilitating the spread of prion infections from the periphery to the central nervous system. CD11c(+) myeloid dendritic cells (DC) could, due to their subepithelial location and their migratory capacity, be early targets for prion infection and contribute to the spread of infection. In order to analyze(More)
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) play an important roll in immediate responses to different conserved molecules produced by microbes. In this paper we describe the cloning of the mouse homolog of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, and present an analysis of the expression of this gene in innate and adaptive immune cell lines. We also performed a broad(More)