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Normal male human subjects ingested amino acid mixtures which were tryptophan-free, balanced or contained excess tryptophan. The tryptophan-free mixture causes a marked depletion of plasma tryptophan by 5 h. At this time the subjects in the tryptophan-free group had significantly elevated scores on the depression scale of the Multiple Affect Adjective(More)
Positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride were used to assess the dopaminergic response to cigarette smoking in ten smokers. Nicotine-deprived smokers were scanned twice on separate days. In one condition, participants smoked their usual brand of cigarettes while in the scanner and in the other condition they remained nicotine abstinent. On each day,(More)
The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of(More)
Microdialysis experiments in rodents indicate that ethanol promotes dopamine release predominantly in the nucleus accumbens, a phenomenon that is implicated in the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis in humans that an oral dose of ethanol would lead to dopamine release in the ventral striatum,(More)
Catecholamines have been implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of experimentally reducing catecholamine neurotransmission by means of acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD). Healthy female volunteers ingested: (1) a nutritionally balanced amino acid (AA) mixture(More)
Despite a relatively large body of literature on the role of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) in the regulation of alcohol intake, the functional significance of serotonergic neurotransmission and its relationship to alcohol intake, abuse, and dependence remains to be fully elucidated. In part two of this review, the(More)
OBJECTIVE A deficit in serotonergic neurotransmission has been linked to impulsive behavior, as well as to disorders characterized by disinhibition. The present study tested the hypothesis that young men at high risk for alcoholism demonstrate greater behavioral disinhibition after acute dietary depletion of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of(More)
Low serotonin has been associated with aggressive behavior and impulsivity. Executive functions (cognitive abilities involved in the initiation/maintenance of goal attainment) have also been related to aggression. We tested whether dietary depletion of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin, would increase disinhibition (impulsivity) in(More)
We studied the degree of plasma tryptophan depletion produced by giving normal human males different amounts of a tryptophan-free (T-) amino acid mixture. From the results of this and other studies we concluded that the maximum degree of tryptophan depletion can be produced by a 31.5 g mixture of seven essential amino acids. Administration of a T- amino(More)
Social drinkers (42 men, 18-34 years old) participated in a study of the effects of alcohol consumption on incidental memory for emotionally salient verbal stimuli. Participants rated depressing, elating, and neutral statements while sober. Fifteen minutes later they consumed alcohol or active placebo (1.0 or 0.1 ml/kg) in an environment with minimal(More)