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SUMMARY Simple interval estimate methods for proportions exhibit poor coverage and can produce evidently inappropriate intervals. Criteria appropriate to the evaluation of various proposed methods include: closeness of the achieved coverage probability to its nominal value; whether intervals are located too close to or too distant from the middle of the(More)
Several existing unconditional methods for setting confidence intervals for the difference between binomial proportions are evaluated. Computationally simpler methods are prone to a variety of aberrations and poor coverage properties. The closely interrelated methods of Mee and Miettinen and Nurminen perform well but require a computer program. Two new(More)
Existing methods for setting confidence intervals for the difference theta between binomial proportions based on paired data perform inadequately. The asymptotic method can produce limits outside the range of validity. The 'exact' conditional method can yield an interval which is effectively only one-sided. Both these methods also have poor coverage(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) compromise the ability of hippocampal neurons to survive various insults, and do so, at least in part, by exacerbating steps in the glutamate/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/calcium cascade of damage. As evidence, GCs impair uptake of glutamate by hippocampal astrocytes, the GC endangerment of the hippocampus is NMDA receptor dependent,(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary rehabilitation seems to be an effective intervention in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We undertook a randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation on use of health care and patients' wellbeing over 1 year. METHODS 200 patients with disabling chronic lung disease (the(More)
The relation between haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at antenatal booking and subsequent outcome was examined in 54 382 singleton pregnancies. Both high (greater than 13.2 g/dl) and low (less than 10.4 g/dl) Hb values were associated with an adverse outcome. Mothers with a booking Hb in the intermediate range (10.4-13.2 g/dl) fared best. Significant(More)
Homocysteine is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Folic acid lowers homocysteine and may improve endothelial function in CAD, although the mechanism is unclear. We investigated the effect of folic acid on endothelial function, homocysteine, and oxidative stress in patients with CAD. We also examined the acute effect of(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the development, validation and inter-rater reliability of an instrument to measure the quality of patient decision support technologies (decision aids). DESIGN Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. SETTING There has been increasing use of decision support(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether physiotherapy can improve mobility in chronic multiple sclerosis and whether there is a difference between treatment at home and as a hospital outpatient? METHODS A randomised controlled crossover trial was undertaken in patients with chronic multiple sclerosis who had difficulty walking and were referred from neurology(More)