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BACKGROUND Susceptibility to disease after infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by environmental and host genetic factors. Vitamin D metabolism leads to activation of macrophages and restricts the intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis. This effect may be influenced by polymorphisms at three sites in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. We(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that host genetic factors controlling the immune response influence infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 ␤ and its antagonist, IL-1Ra (IL-1 receptor agonist), are strongly induced by M. tuberculosis and are encoded by polymorphic genes. The induction of both IL-1Ra mRNA(More)
We analyzed data obtained from 3365 patients with kala-azar (KA) or post-KA dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) treated by Medecins Sans Frontieres-Holland in south Sudan from October 1998-May 2002. Patients were malnourished (median body mass index [BMI], 15.5; median weight for height [WFH], 75.5%) and anemic (median hemoglobin (Hb) level, 8.5 g/dL). The(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D was used to treat tuberculosis in the pre-antibiotic era, and its metabolites induce antimycobacterial immunity in vitro. Clinical trials investigating the effect of adjunctive vitamin D on sputum culture conversion are absent. METHODS We undertook a multicentre randomised controlled trial of adjunctive vitamin D in adults with sputum(More)
RATIONALE Vitamin D was used to treat tuberculosis (TB) in the preantibiotic era. Prospective studies to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on antimycobacterial immunity have not previously been performed. OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on antimycobacterial immunity and vitamin D status. METHODS A(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that host genetic factors controlling the immune response influence infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta and its antagonist, IL-1Ra (IL-1 receptor agonist), are strongly induced by M. tuberculosis and are encoded by polymorphic genes. The induction of both IL-1Ra mRNA(More)
Reported are the results of a study to determine the efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) for treating visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in several developing countries where the disease is endemic (Brazil, India, and Kenya). At each study site, sequential cohorts of 10 patients each were treated with AmBisome at a dose of 2(More)
We evaluated generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG) (International Dispensary Association, Amsterdam) versus Pentostam (sodium stibogluconate, GlaxoWellcome, London) under field conditions in Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar). The 199 patients were randomly assigned to Pentostam (n = 104) or SSG (n = 95) in 1998/99; both drugs were(More)
Accuracy of an rK39 rapid diagnostic test (DiaMed-IT-Leish ) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was compared with splenic aspiration and the direct agglutination test (DAT) in a population with a high prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Ethiopia. There were 699 patients clinically suspected of having VL (153 parasitologically(More)