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We analyzed data obtained from 3365 patients with kala-azar (KA) or post-KA dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) treated by Medecins Sans Frontieres-Holland in south Sudan from October 1998-May 2002. Patients were malnourished (median body mass index [BMI], 15.5; median weight for height [WFH], 75.5%) and anemic (median hemoglobin (Hb) level, 8.5 g/dL). The(More)
BACKGROUND Susceptibility to disease after infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by environmental and host genetic factors. Vitamin D metabolism leads to activation of macrophages and restricts the intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis. This effect may be influenced by polymorphisms at three sites in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. We(More)
RATIONALE Vitamin D was used to treat tuberculosis (TB) in the preantibiotic era. Prospective studies to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on antimycobacterial immunity have not previously been performed. OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on antimycobacterial immunity and vitamin D status. METHODS A(More)
Accuracy of an rK39 rapid diagnostic test (DiaMed-IT-Leish ) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was compared with splenic aspiration and the direct agglutination test (DAT) in a population with a high prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Ethiopia. There were 699 patients clinically suspected of having VL (153 parasitologically(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that host genetic factors controlling the immune response influence infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 ␤ and its antagonist, IL-1Ra (IL-1 receptor agonist), are strongly induced by M. tuberculosis and are encoded by polymorphic genes. The induction of both IL-1Ra mRNA(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D was used to treat tuberculosis in the pre-antibiotic era, and its metabolites induce antimycobacterial immunity in vitro. Clinical trials investigating the effect of adjunctive vitamin D on sputum culture conversion are absent. METHODS We undertook a multicentre randomised controlled trial of adjunctive vitamin D in adults with sputum(More)
BACKGROUND Many adults with pulmonary tuberculosis are unable to expectorate. Gastric washing, sputum induction using nebulized hypertonic saline, and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage have all been used to obtain specimens for diagnosis, but to our knowledge, the timing and volume of induced sputum have not been well studied, and these 3 methods(More)
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, and its biologically active metabolite, 1alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)), has pleiotropic immune effects. The mechanisms by which 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) protects against tuberculosis are incompletely understood. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) reduced the growth of mycobacteria(More)
Reported are the results of a study to determine the efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) for treating visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in several developing countries where the disease is endemic (Brazil, India, and Kenya). At each study site, sequential cohorts of 10 patients each were treated with AmBisome at a dose of 2(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the outcome of treatment of Sudanese kala-azar patients treated under field conditions with either branded sodium stibogluconate (SSG) (Pentostam GlaxoWellcome) or generic SSG (Albert David Ltd, Calcutta, supplied by International Dispensary Association, Amsterdam). METHOD Randomised comparison. 271 patients were treated with(More)