Robert N Cole

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Coordinate induction of phase 2 proteins and elevation of glutathione protect cells against the toxic and carcinogenic effects of electrophiles and oxidants. All inducers react covalently with thiols at rates that are closely related to their potencies. Inducers disrupt the cytoplasmic complex between the actin-bound protein Keap1 and the transcription(More)
The pyruvate kinase isoforms PKM1 and PKM2 are alternatively spliced products of the PKM2 gene. PKM2, but not PKM1, alters glucose metabolism in cancer cells and contributes to tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not explained by its known biochemical activity. We show that PKM2 gene transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). PKM2(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates transcription in response to changes in O(2) concentration. O(2)-dependent degradation of the HIF-1alpha subunit is mediated by prolyl hydroxylase (PHD), the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)/Elongin-C/Elongin-B E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, and the proteasome. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) leads to(More)
Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase (Acs) is an enzyme central to metabolism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Acs synthesizes acetyl CoA from acetate, adenosine triphosphate, and CoA through an acetyl-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) intermediate. Immunoblotting and mass spectrometry analysis showed that Salmonella enterica Acs enzyme activity is(More)
Tau is a family of phosphoproteins that are important in modulating microtubule stability in neurons. In Alzheimer's disease tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, no longer binds microtubules, and self-assembles to form paired helical filaments that likely contribute to neuron death. Here we demonstrate that normal bovine tau is multiply modified by(More)
Identifying sites of post-translational modifications on proteins is a major challenge in proteomics. O-Linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic nucleocytoplasmic modification more analogous to phosphorylation than to classical complex O-glycosylation. We describe a mass spectrometry-based method for the identification of sites modified by(More)
Isolated biotin-resistant 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism that appears to be the most frequent organic aciduria detected in tandem mass spectrometry-based neonatal screening programs. The phenotype is variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological involvement to(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded stretch of CAG trinucleotide repeats that results in neuronal dysfunction and death. Here, The HD Consortium reports the generation and characterization of 14 induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from HD patients and controls. Microarray profiling revealed(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine repeat within the HD gene product, huntingtin. Huntingtin, a large (347 kDa) protein containing multiple HEAT repeats, acts as a scaffold for protein-protein interactions. Huntingtin-induced toxicity is believed to be mediated by a conformational change in(More)
Myocardial stunning is the transient cardiac dysfunction that follows brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion without associated myocardial necrosis. Currently, there is limited knowledge about its cellular and biochemical mechanisms. In order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of contractile dysfunction associated with the stunning,(More)