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The pyruvate kinase isoforms PKM1 and PKM2 are alternatively spliced products of the PKM2 gene. PKM2, but not PKM1, alters glucose metabolism in cancer cells and contributes to tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not explained by its known biochemical activity. We show that PKM2 gene transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). PKM2(More)
Coordinate induction of phase 2 proteins and elevation of glutathione protect cells against the toxic and carcinogenic effects of electrophiles and oxidants. All inducers react covalently with thiols at rates that are closely related to their potencies. Inducers disrupt the cytoplasmic complex between the actin-bound protein Keap1 and the transcription(More)
Identifying sites of post-translational modifications on proteins is a major challenge in proteomics. O-Linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic nucleocytoplasmic modification more analogous to phosphorylation than to classical complex O-glycosylation. We describe a mass spectrometry-based method for the identification of sites modified by(More)
Tau is a family of phosphoproteins that are important in modulating microtubule stability in neurons. In Alzheimer's disease tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, no longer binds microtubules, and self-assembles to form paired helical filaments that likely contribute to neuron death. Here we demonstrate that normal bovine tau is multiply modified by(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates transcription in response to changes in O(2) concentration. O(2)-dependent degradation of the HIF-1alpha subunit is mediated by prolyl hydroxylase (PHD), the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)/Elongin-C/Elongin-B E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, and the proteasome. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) leads to(More)
Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a highly potent inducer of phase 2 cytoprotective enzymes and can protect against electrophiles including carcinogens, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The mechanism of action of sulforaphane is believed to involve(More)
Redox-switches are critical cysteine thiols that are modified in response to changes in the cell's environment conferring a functional effect. S-nitrosylation (SNO) is emerging as an important modulator of these regulatory switches; however, much remains unknown about the nature of these specific cysteine residues and how oxidative signals are interpreted.(More)
Isolated biotin-resistant 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism that appears to be the most frequent organic aciduria detected in tandem mass spectrometry-based neonatal screening programs. The phenotype is variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological involvement to(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine repeat within the HD gene product, huntingtin. Huntingtin, a large (347 kDa) protein containing multiple HEAT repeats, acts as a scaffold for protein-protein interactions. Huntingtin-induced toxicity is believed to be mediated by a conformational change in(More)