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The hippocampus has a critical role in several fundamental memory operations, including the conditioning of fear to contextual information. We show that the hippocampus is necessary also for unconditioned fear, and that the involved circuitry is at the ventral pole of the hippocampus. Rats with selective hippocampal lesions failed to avoid open arms in an(More)
With the steadily increasing number of publications in the field of stress research it has become evident that the conventional usage of the stress concept bears considerable problems. The use of the term 'stress' to conditions ranging from even the mildest challenging stimulation to severely aversive conditions, is in our view inappropriate. Review of the(More)
Chronic stress is linked to development of depression and may trigger neurobiological changes underlying the disease. Downregulation of the secretory peptide brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the transcriptional regulator calcium/cyclic-AMP responsive binding protein (CREB) have been implicated in stress and depression-related pathology in animal(More)
The effect of 24-h sleep deprivation by forced locomotion on plasma corticosterone was investigated in the rat. Corticosterone was slightly elevated after 21.5 h sleep deprivation, but did not differ from controls after a 2.5-h recovery period. An acute 20-min forced locomotion period caused a marked rise in plasma corticosterone. It is concluded that(More)
Since the publication of our initial review of restraint stress in 1986, much work has continued with this technique, either as a tool for the investigation of other pharmacological, physiological, or pathologic phenomena or with restraint stress itself serving as the object of the study. As we noted in 1986, the major use of restraint has been for the(More)
The role of an intact locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic system for the central effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was studied. Rats were treated with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4), a highly selective noradrenergic neurotoxin permanently affecting mainly the LC system. This procedure did not affect the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations between level of fatigue and various potential inflammatory biomarkers for fatigue after multivariate adjustments for possible confounders in a sample of 299 disease-free survivors of breast cancer (BCSs) at a mean of 4 years post diagnosis. METHODS Medical record data were used for cancer-related information, and(More)
We studied the short- and long-term effects of a double social defeat (SD) on sleep parameters, EEG power, behaviour in the open field emergence test, corticosterone responsiveness, and acoustic startle responses. Pre-stress levels of corticosterone were assessed before all rats were surgically implanted with telemetric transmitters for sleep recording, and(More)
The aim of the paper was to study the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and cortisol release during cognitive challenging tasks. Forty-nine male naval cadets from the Royal Norwegian Naval Academy were administered computerised versions of attentional and working memory tests. The results from this study support the hypothesis of a negative(More)