Janne Grønli9
Reidun Ursin7
Bjørn Bjorvatn6
Anne Marita Milde4
9Janne Grønli
7Reidun Ursin
6Bjørn Bjorvatn
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Many symptoms of human depressive disorders are also observed in animals after exposure to unpredictable stressors. The chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm was developed in order to better model the human situation by using chronic mild stressors over a longer period. It is claimed that the model induces anhedonia in the animals, a core symptom of depression(More)
The hippocampus has a critical role in several fundamental memory operations, including the conditioning of fear to contextual information. We show that the hippocampus is necessary also for unconditioned fear, and that the involved circuitry is at the ventral pole of the hippocampus. Rats with selective hippocampal lesions failed to avoid open arms in an(More)
Chronic stress is linked to development of depression and may trigger neurobiological changes underlying the disease. Downregulation of the secretory peptide brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the transcriptional regulator calcium/cyclic-AMP responsive binding protein (CREB) have been implicated in stress and depression-related pathology in animal(More)
Depression in humans is associated with sleep abnormalities of three types: altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, fragmented sleep, and reduced delta sleep. In an animal model of depression, chronic exposure to mild stressors (CMS, e.g. periods of soiled cage, reversed light/dark cycle, grouped housing, food and/or water deprivation) causes behavioral and(More)
Social defeat, resulting from the fight for a territory is based on the resident-intruder paradigm. A male rat intruder is placed in the territory of an older, bigger and more aggressive male resident and is defeated. In the present study, a double exposure to social defeat increased sleep fragmentation due to an increased amount of waking and(More)
The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS) offers formal and systematic definitions of the terms and concepts used in stress research. The stress response depends on acquired expectancies to the outcome of the stimulus and the available responses. The stress response itself is an alarm, an increase in arousal necessary for performance and adequate(More)
Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult(More)
Dizziness and or unsteadiness, associated with episodes of loss of balance, are frequent complaints in those suffering from persistent problems following a whiplash injury. Research has been inconclusive with respect to possible aetiology, discriminative tests and analyses used. The aim of this pilot research was to identify the test conditions and the most(More)