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With the steadily increasing number of publications in the field of stress research it has become evident that the conventional usage of the stress concept bears considerable problems. The use of the term 'stress' to conditions ranging from even the mildest challenging stimulation to severely aversive conditions, is in our view inappropriate. Review of the(More)
The hippocampus has a critical role in several fundamental memory operations, including the conditioning of fear to contextual information. We show that the hippocampus is necessary also for unconditioned fear, and that the involved circuitry is at the ventral pole of the hippocampus. Rats with selective hippocampal lesions failed to avoid open arms in an(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations between level of fatigue and various potential inflammatory biomarkers for fatigue after multivariate adjustments for possible confounders in a sample of 299 disease-free survivors of breast cancer (BCSs) at a mean of 4 years post diagnosis. METHODS Medical record data were used for cancer-related information, and(More)
The effects of bilateral removal of the superior colliculus or visual cortex on visually guided locomotor movements in rats performing a brightness discrimination task were investigated directly with the use of cine film. Rats with collicular lesions showed patterns of locomotion comparable to or more efficient than those of normal animals when approaching(More)
Low-grade inflammatory responses may be related to the pathogenesis of cancer-related fatigue (CRF). We investigated circulating levels of various inflammatory markers in relation to chronic CRF (6 month duration) in Norwegian long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TCSs). We compared 92 TCSs with chronic CRF (cases) to 191 TCS without (controls) at(More)
One of the most established hypotheses of depression focuses on alteration of the serotonergic (5-HT) function. Recent evidence suggests that serotonergic involvement in depression may be modulated by the action of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GABA). Furthermore, altered GABAergic function is also evident in depressed patients and in animal models of(More)
Chronic stress is linked to development of depression and may trigger neurobiological changes underlying the disease. Downregulation of the secretory peptide brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the transcriptional regulator calcium/cyclic-AMP responsive binding protein (CREB) have been implicated in stress and depression-related pathology in animal(More)
Since the publication of our initial review of restraint stress in 1986, much work has continued with this technique, either as a tool for the investigation of other pharmacological, physiological, or pathologic phenomena or with restraint stress itself serving as the object of the study. As we noted in 1986, the major use of restraint has been for the(More)
The effect of 24-h sleep deprivation by forced locomotion on plasma corticosterone was investigated in the rat. Corticosterone was slightly elevated after 21.5 h sleep deprivation, but did not differ from controls after a 2.5-h recovery period. An acute 20-min forced locomotion period caused a marked rise in plasma corticosterone. It is concluded that(More)
Based upon repeated observations of a relationship between defensive burying (DB), ethanol intake and stress ulcer susceptibility, and recurring questions regarding what DB behaviour reflects, two experiments were performed. Experiment 1 showed that prod shock exposure per se reduced subsequent ethanol intake, as did access to burying material. In rats(More)