Robert Michael Roberts

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For reasons that are unclear the production of embryonic stem cells from ungulates has proved elusive. Here, we describe induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from porcine fetal fibroblasts by lentiviral transduction of 4 human (h) genes, hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF4, and hc-MYC, the combination commonly used to create iPSC in mouse and human. Cells were(More)
The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are putative peptide-binding proteins and products of a large family of genes whose expression is localized to the placental surface epithelium of artiodactyl species. We have tested the hypothesis that natural selection has favored diversification of these genes by examining patterns of nucleotide substitution(More)
Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are members of the aspartyl proteinase gene family that were initially identified in cattle (bPAG) and sheep (oPAG) as placenta-specific antigens in maternal blood. The objective of this study was to determine whether PAG are expressed in pig trophoblast. A porcine conceptus cDNA library was screened with 32P-labeled(More)
Early-stage mammalian embryos develop in a low O(2) environment (hypoxia). hES cells, however, are generally cultured under an atmosphere of 21% O(2) (normoxia), under which conditions they tend to differentiate spontaneously. Such conditions may not be the most suitable, therefore, for hES cell propagation. Here we have tested two hypotheses. The first(More)
The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) constitute a large family of recently duplicated genes. They show structural resemblance to pepsin and related aspartic proteinases. A total of 21 bovine (bo) PAG and 9 ovine (ov) PAG cDNA have been identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the PAG are divided into two main groupings that accurately(More)
Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG)-1 (PAG1) and pregnancy-specific protein B are either identical or closely related antigens released by trophoblast binucleate cells of placentas of cattle. Sheep and other ruminants produce similar products. There is evidence, however, that these antigens, which are related structurally to the pepsinogens and other(More)
Pregnancy in cattle and sheep can be diagnosed by the presence of a conceptus-derived antigen in maternal serum that is secreted by trophoblast and placental tissue primarily as an acidic component of Mr 67,000. Molecular cloning of its cDNA reveals that the antigen belongs to the aspartic proteinase family and has greater than 50% amino acid sequence(More)
The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are a large gene family expressed in trophoblast cells of ruminant ungulates. The detection of PAGs (more specifically, PAG-1) in maternal serum has served as the basis for pregnancy detection in cattle. Unfortunately, PAG-1 and/or antigenically-related PAGs exhibit a long half-life in maternal serum (>8 d) and(More)