Robert Michael Hoekstra

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Estimates of foodborne illness can be used to direct food safety policy and interventions. We used data from active and passive surveillance and other sources to estimate that each year 31 major pathogens acquired in the United States caused 9.4 million episodes of foodborne illness (90% credible interval [CrI] 6.6-12.7 million), 55,961 hospitalizations(More)
To estimate the global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis, we synthesized existing data from laboratory-based surveillance and special studies, with a hierarchical preference to (1) prospective population-based studies, (2) "multiplier studies," (3) disease notifications, (4) returning traveler data, and (5) extrapolation. We applied(More)
Campylobacter is a common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States. We conducted a population-based case-control study to determine risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection. During a 12-month study, we enrolled 1316 patients with culture-confirmed Campylobacter infections from 7 states, collecting demographic, clinical, and exposure data using(More)
Each year, 31 major known pathogens acquired in the United States caused an estimated 9.4 million episodes of foodborne illness. Additional episodes of illness were caused by unspecified agents, including known agents with insufficient data to estimate agent-specific illness, known agents not yet recognized as causing foodborne illness, substances known to(More)
BACKGROUND More than 3.5 million children aged less than 5 years die from diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory-tract infection every year. We undertook a randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of handwashing promotion with soap on the incidence of acute respiratory infection, impetigo, and diarrhoea. METHODS In adjoining squatter settlements in(More)
Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities(More)
CONTEXT Washing hands with soap prevents diarrhea, but children at the highest risk of death from diarrhea are younger than 1 year, too young to wash their own hands. Previous studies lacked sufficient power to assess the impact of household handwashing on diarrhea in infants. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of promoting household handwashing with soap(More)
Salmonella Newport causes more than an estimated 100,000 infections annually in the United States. In 2002, tomatoes grown and packed on the eastern shore of Virginia contaminated with a pan-susceptible S. Newport strain caused illness in 510 patients in 26 states. In July-November 2005, the same strain caused illness in at least 72 patients in 16 states.(More)
Intensive handwashing promotion can reduce diarrheal and respiratory disease incidence. To determine whether less intensive, more scalable interventions can improve health, we evaluated a school-based handwashing program. We randomized 87 Chinese schools to usual practices: standard intervention (handwashing program) or expanded intervention (handwashing(More)