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Mammalian retinal degenerations initiated by gene defects in rods, cones or the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) often trigger loss of the sensory retina, effectively leaving the neural retina deafferented. The neural retina responds to this challenge by remodeling, first by subtle changes in neuronal structure and later by large-scale reorganization.(More)
Pattern recognition of amino acid signals partitions the cells of the goldfish retina into nine statistically unique biochemical theme classes and permits a first-order chemical mapping of virtually all cellular space. Photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells display a set of unique, nominally glutamatergic type E1, E1+E2, and E4 signatures,(More)
PURPOSE Our objective was to comprehensively assess the nature and chronology of neural remodeling in retinal degenerations triggered by light-induced retinal damage (LIRD) in adult albino rodents. Our primary hypothesis is that all complete photoreceptor degenerations devolve to extensive remodeling. An hypothesis emergent from data analysis is that the(More)
Classifying all of the ganglion cells in the mammalian retina has long been a goal of anatomists, physiologists, and cell biologists. The rabbit retinal ganglion cell layer was phenotyped using intrinsic small molecule signals (aspartate, glutamate, glycine, glutamine, GABA, and taurine) and glutamate receptor-gated 1-amino-4-guanidobutane excitation(More)
Many photoreceptor degenerations initially affect rods, secondarily leading to cone death. It has long been assumed that the surviving neural retina is largely resistant to this sensory deafferentation. New evidence from fast retinal degenerations reveals that subtle plasticities in neuronal form and connectivity emerge early in disease. By screening mature(More)
Presynaptic gamma-aminobutyrate-immunoreactive (GABA+) profiles were mapped in the cyprinid retina with overlay microscopy: a fusion of electron and optical imaging affording high-contrast ultrastructural and immunocytochemical visualization. GABA+ synapses, deriving primarily from amacrine cells (ACs), compose 92% of conventional synapses and 98% of the(More)
Retinal degenerations, regardless of the initiating event or gene defect, often result in a loss of photoreceptors. This formal deafferentation of the neural retina eliminates the intrinsic glutamatergic drive of the sensory retina and, perhaps more importantly, removes coordinated Ca++-coupled signaling to the neural retina. As in other central nervous(More)
PURPOSE A connectome is a comprehensive description of synaptic connectivity for a neural domain. Our goal was to produce a connectome data set for the inner plexiform layer of the mammalian retina. This paper describes our first retinal connectome, validates the method, and provides key initial findings. METHODS We acquired and assembled a 16.5 terabyte(More)
  • R E Marc
  • The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1999
Patterns of neuronal excitation in complex populations can be mapped anatomically by activating ionotropic glutamate receptors in the presence of 1-amino-4-guanidobutane (AGB), a channel-permeant guanidinium analogue. Intracellular AGB signals were trapped with conventional glutaraldehyde fixation and were detected by probing registered serial thin sections(More)
PURPOSE Early visual defects in degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) may arise from phased remodeling of the neural retina. The authors sought to explore the functional expression of ionotropic (iGluR) and group 3, type 6 metabotropic (mGluR6) glutamate receptors in late-stage photoreceptor degeneration. METHODS Excitation mapping with(More)