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We present a theory, and its computer implementation, of how mental simulations underlie the abductions of informal algorithms and deductions from these algorithms. Three experiments tested the theory's predictions, using an environment of a single railway track and a siding. This environment is akin to a universal Turing machine, but it is simple enough(More)
This article reports investigations of inferences that depend both on connectives between clauses, such as or else, and on relations between entities, such as in the same place as. Participants made more valid inferences from biconditionals--for instance, Ann is taller than Beth if and only if Beth is taller than Cath--than from exclusive disjunctions (Exp.(More)
Reasoners without any background in logic can make valid deductions. They can reason about sentences and relations (Mackiewicz & Johnson-Laird, 2012), ascribe culpability and causality (Bucciarelli et al., 2008), creatively generate algorithms to solve tasks (Khemlani et al., 2013), make inferences about mechanisms and physical scenes (Hegarty, 2004;(More)
The paper presents two studies that investigated how individuals reason from disjunctive statements that use numerical estimations. In the experiments two types of such statements were used. In the first type both constituents of a disjunction could be a logically correct answer. That is, if " The average life time of a fruit fly is either 9 or 27 days " ,(More)
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