Robert M. Schwartz

Learn More
The concept of the internal dialogue—and specifically the fundamental polarity between positive and negative thoughts—has historical antecedents from Plato to William James. Recent cognitive-behavioral research suggests that functional groups are characterized by approximately a 1.7 to 1 ratio of positive to negative coping thoughts, whereas mildly(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking in pregnancy exemplifies the relationship between tobacco use and health inequalities. While difficulty reaching and engaging this population in cessation support is often highlighted in the literature, there is limited research that explores the factors that shape the provision and use of support by this subpopulation. Using Ontario,(More)
AIMS Non-First Nations people purchasing cigarettes on First Nations reserves do not pay applicable taxes. We estimated prevalence and identified correlates of purchasing contraband cigarettes on reserves; we also quantified the share of contraband purchased on reserves relative to reported total cigarette consumption and the associated financial impact on(More)
The availability of low-cost cigarettes undermines tobacco control’s most effective measure to reduce smoking prevalence: keeping cigarette prices high by raising tobacco taxes.1 The discount cigarette market share has grown considerably since 2003,2 with discount cigarettes selling for $10-$15 less per carton than premium brands. Contraband cigarettes –(More)
INTRODUCTION Few studies have examined the transitions of smokers in the general population through multiple periods of daily, occasional smoking, or abstinence over time. Transitions from daily to occasional smoking are particularly of interest as these may be steps toward cessation. METHODS The Ontario Tobacco Survey panel study followed 4,355 baseline(More)
INTRODUCTION There are limited data on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among youth, particularly with regard to the use of nicotine versus nonnicotine products. This study investigates ever use of nicotine and nonnicotine e-cigarettes and examines the demographic and behavioral correlates of e-cigarette use in Ontario, Canada. METHODS Data(More)
AIMS It has been hypothesized that the smoking population is represented by an increasingly 'hardcore' group of smokers who are resistant to quitting. Many definitions of 'hardcore smokers' have been used, but their predictive validity is unknown. To evaluate whether 'hardcore smoker' definition components predict quitting behaviours and which combinations(More)
BACKGROUND Depression involves decreased positive affect. Whether this is due to a failure to achieve or maintain positive emotion in response to discrete stimuli is unclear. Understanding the nature of decreased positive affect could help to address how to intervene in the phenomenon, for example, how to structure interventions using positive and rewarding(More)
We evaluated program entry, retention, and early treatment response of needle exchange program (NEP) attenders referred to a drug treatment program using levomethadyl acetate hydrochloride (LAAM). Of 163 referrals, 114 (70%) entered the program, and 84% were retained for at least 90 days. Comparing baseline and follow-up visits after 1 month, there were(More)
BACKGROUND As regulation of tobacco products tightens, there are concerns that illicit markets may develop to supply restricted products. However, there are few validated measures to assess attitudes or purchase intentions toward contraband tobacco (CT). As such, it is important to investigate individual level characteristics that are associated with the(More)