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TRAIL (also called Apo2L) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family, activates rapid apoptosis in tumor cells, and binds to the death-signaling receptor DR4. Two additional TRAIL receptors were identified. The receptor designated death receptor 5 (DR5) contained a cytoplasmic death domain and induced apoptosis much like DR4. The receptor designated decoy(More)
BLyS (also called TALL-1, THANK, or BAFF) [1] [2] [3] [4] is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene family that stimulates proliferation and immunoglobulin production by B cells. BLyS interacts with the TNF receptor (TNFR) homologue TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML-interactor) [5], and treatment of mice with a TACI-Fc fusion protein(More)
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor (TNFR) gene superfamilies regulate diverse biological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival [1] [2] [3]. We have identified a new TNF-related ligand, designated human GITR ligand (hGITRL), and its human receptor (hGITR), an ortholog of the recently discovered murine(More)
Cell-surface death receptors such as DR4 and DR5 trigger apoptosis through a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) that recruits the apical protease caspase-8. Apoptosis commitment requires efficient activation and autocatalytic release of caspase-8 into the cytoplasm to engage executioner caspases. While DISC recruitment initiates caspase-8 stimulation,(More)
Fas ligand (FasL) is produced by activated T cells and natural killer cells and it induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in target cells through the death receptor Fas/Apol/CD95. One important role of FasL and Fas is to mediate immune-cytotoxic killing of cells that are potentially harmful to the organism, such as virus-infected or tumour cells. Here we(More)
A new member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytokine family, designated Apo-2 ligand (Apo-21) [1] or TRAIL [2], has been shown recently to induce apoptosis in various tumor cell lines; however, its biological role is unknown. Here, we show that Apo-21, activated apoptosis in T-cell-enriched cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by(More)
Apo2 ligand (Apo2L [1], also called TRAIL for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand [2]) belongs to the TNF family and activates apoptosis in tumor cells. Three closely related receptors bind Apo2L: DR4 and DR5, which contain cytoplasmic death domains and signal apoptosis, and DcR1, a decoy receptor that lacks a cytoplasmic tail and(More)
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytokine family regulates development and function of the immune system [1]. TNF is expressed primarily by activated lymphocytes and macrophages and induces gene transcription or apoptosis in target cells [2,3]. We have identified a novel relative of TNF that binds to the recently discovered, death-domain-containing receptor(More)
BACKGROUND Two receptors that contain the so-called "death domain' have been described to date: tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and Fas/Apo-1 (CD95); both belong to the TNFR gene family. The death domain of TNFR1 mediates the activation of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, whereas the death domain of CD95(More)
The proapoptotic death receptor DR5 has been studied extensively in cancer cells, but its action in the tumor microenvironment is not well defined. Here, we uncover a role for DR5 signaling in tumor endothelial cells (ECs). We detected DR5 expression in ECs within tumors but not normal tissues. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with an oligomeric form of the(More)