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The goal of occupational risk assessment is often to estimate excess lifetime risk for some disabling or fatal health outcome in relation to a fixed workplace exposure lasting a working lifetime. For sub-chronic or sub-clinical health effects measured as continuous variables, the benchmark dose method can be applied, but poses issues in defining impairment(More)
Welding fume contains manganese (Mn) which is known to be bio-available to and neurotoxic for the central nervous system. Although an essential metal, Mn overexposure may cause manganism, a parkinsonian syndrome. The present welder study sought to improve the clinical portrait of manganism and to determine dose-effect relationships. The welders were(More)
Experimenters in toxicology often compare the concentration-response relationship between two distinct populations using the median lethal concentration (LC50). This comparison is sometimes done by calculating the 95% confidence interval for the LC50 for each population, concluding that no significant difference exists if the two confidence intervals(More)
BACKGROUND In a group of 43 confined space welders dose-effect relationships had been identified for adverse neurological/neuropsychological functional effects in relation to manganese (Mn) in blood or air (cumulative exposure index). The welders' exposure to Mn was unprotected and with poor ventilation, lasting on average 16.5 months. A follow-up(More)
Exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with neurobehavioral effects. There is disagreement on whether commonly occurring exposures in welding, ferroalloy, and other industrial processes produce neurologically significant neurobehavioral changes representing parkinsonism. A review of methodological issues in the human epidemiological literature on Mn(More)
OBJECTIVE The exposure-response relationship for manganese (Mn)-induced adverse nervous system effects is not well described. Symptoms and neuropsychological deficits associated with early manganism were previously reported for welders constructing bridge piers during 2003 to 2004. A reanalysis using improved exposure, work history information, and diverse(More)
Virtually no occupational exposure standards specify the level of risk for the prescribed exposure, and most occupational exposure limits are not based on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) at all. Wider use of QRA could improve understanding of occupational risks while increasing focus on identifying exposure concentrations conferring acceptably low levels(More)
Foundry workers are potentially exposed to a number of carcinogens. This study was conducted to describe the cancer incidence associated with employment in small-sized Korean iron foundries and to compare those findings to the Korean population. Cancer morbidity in 208 Korean foundries was analyzed using the Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) and(More)
Manganese is an essential nutrient, and a healthy human with good liver and kidney function can easily excrete excess dietary manganese. Inhaled manganese is a greater concern, because it bypasses the body's normal homeostatic mechanisms and can accumulate in the brain. Prolonged exposure to high manganese concentrations (>1mg/m(3)) in air leads to a(More)
BACKGROUND Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further(More)