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—In a within-subjects design that varied whether speakers were allowed to gesture and the difficulty of lexical access, speakers were videotaped as they described animated action cartoons to a listener. When speakers were permitted to gesture, they gestured more often during phrases with spatial content than during phrases with other content. Speech with(More)
Two pairs of studies examined effects of perspective taking in communication, using a 2-stage methodology that first obtained people's estimates of the recognizability to others of specific stimuli (public figures and everyday objects) and then examined the effects of these estimates on message formulation in a referential communication task. Ss were good(More)
This study assessed the impact of a conscious imitation goal on phonetic convergence during conversational interaction. Twelve pairs of unacquainted talkers participated in a conversational task designed to elicit between-talker repetitions of the same lexical items. To assess the degree to which the talkers exhibited phonetic convergence during the(More)
This is a pre-editing version of a paper published as: Krauss, R.M. (1998). Why do we gesture when we speak? Current Directions in Psychological Science 7, 54-59. Students of human nature traditionally have considered conversational gestures—unplanned, articulate hand movements that accompany spontaneous speech— to be a medium for conveying semantic(More)
Acknowledgments: We have benefitted from discussions with and the Handbook's editors read and commented on an earlier version of this chapter. The advice, comments and suggestions we have received are gratefully acknowledged, but the authors retain responsibility for such errors, misapprehensions and misinterpretations as remain. We also acknowledge support(More)
Two studies on speech samples from 32 male college students are reported. In the first, it was shown that the average voice fundamental frequency of the subjects was higher when lying than when telling the truth. In the second, judges rated the truthfulness of 64 true and false utterances either from an audiotape that had been electronically filtered to(More)
In 5 experiments, male and female undergraduates viewed gestures and tried to select the words that originally accompanied them; read interpretations of gestures' meanings and tried to select the words that originally had accompanied them; tried to recognize gestures they previously had seen, presented either with or without the accompanying speech; and(More)