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Smokers (n = 315) who wished to quit were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to groups using either nicotine or placebo gum. Self-reported and observed symptoms of tobacco withdrawal were collected before cessation and at follow-ups of 1 to 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months. Self-reported and/or observed anger, anxiety, craving, difficulty(More)
The effects of varying times of cigarette deprivation on cognitive and performance tasks were examined. This study employed a between-subjects design in which five groups of smokers (9-10 subjects in each group) were compared on a vigilance task and cognitive measures as a function of length of deprivation (0, 2, 4, 8, or 24 hours). Each subject was tested(More)
It is well established that nicotine meets all criteria of a highly addictive drug. However, as recognized by the U.S. surgeon general, the nicotine delivery system itself is an important determinant of the toxic and addictive effects engendered by nicotine use. Therefore, altering the form of nicotine dosing may allow for selective therapeutic action in(More)
Sixteen smokers completed a sustained attention task, were randomly assigned to either continue smoking or abstain for 24 h, and were retested. Eight nonsmokers served as a control group. Abstinence increased the variability in responding. Abstinence also appeared to impair the ability to inhibit responding. Abstinence did not potentiate fatigue during the(More)
Relations between luminance contrast and reaction time were studied for foveal vision over a three-decade range of background luminance. On each background, the contrast equivalence relation between negative and positive contrast flashes conformed almost exactly to the result expected if equal luminance steps of opposite sign produce equal visual effects.(More)
Three studies examined self-administration of nicotine among exsmokers given concurrent access to nicotine (2 mg) and placebo gums during the first 2 weeks of abstinence from smoking. In Study 1 subjects were told they would receive either nicotine or placebo gum. With this instructional set, nicotine served as a reinforcer; i.e., subjects consistently(More)
Although a variety of drugs have been detected in sweat, little information is available on the characteristics of drug excretion in sweat under controlled-dosing conditions. A series of clinical studies were designed to determine the identity, concentration, time course, dose dependency, and variability of drug and metabolite excretion in sweat following(More)
The relationship between blood cocaine concentrations and pharmacological effects is of both theoretical and practical interest. This study utilized a computer-assisted smoking device for the delivery of three active doses (10, 20, and 40 mg) of cocaine base to seven human volunteers. Doses were administered in an ascending dose design with random placement(More)
A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study was conducted to determine the effects of carbamazepine on the acute physiological and subjective responses to a single dose of smoked cocaine-base. Male cocaine users (N = 6) were given 400 mg carbamazepine or placebo, each for a period of 5 days. At the end of the 5-day period, a 40 mg dose of smoked(More)
There is an increasing prevalence of smokeless tobacco use. However, very little descriptive information is available on the pattern of use. This study examines topographical features of smokeless tobacco use in a male college-age population (N = 56). Subjects were required to use smokeless tobacco ad lib. for a period of 3 days. During this time, they were(More)