Robert M. J. Keehnen

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Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a general mechanism for removal of unwanted cells from the immune system. It is characterized by chromatin condensation, a reduction in cell volume, and endonuclease cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal length fragments. Apoptosis is also accompanied by a loss of membrane phospholipid asymmetry, resulting in the(More)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a crucial role in growth regulation by assembling signaling complexes and presenting growth factors to their cognate receptors. Within the immune system, expression of the HSPG syndecan-1 (CD138) is characteristic of terminally differentiated B cells, ie, plasma cells, and their malignant counterpart, multiple(More)
Expression of CD44, particularly of certain splice variants, has been linked to tumor progression and metastatic potential in a number of different animal and human cancers. Although differential expression of CD44 standard epitopes (CD44s) in human brain tumors has been reported, the expression of CD44 variant exon encoded sequences (CD44v) in primary(More)
During HIV infection the architecture of secondary lymphoid tissues is severely disrupted. In particular the germinal centers, which play a key role in the orchestration of the secondary immune response, undergo gross phenotypic alterations, leading to a complete destruction of the germinal center microenvironment. The precise mechanisms responsible for the(More)
T cell-dependent humoral immune responses are initiated by the activation of naive B cells in the T cell areas of the secondary lymphoid tissues. This primary B cell activation leads to migration of germinal center (GC) cell precursors into B cell follicles where they engage follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and T cells, and differentiate into memory B cells(More)
Germinal centers (GC) constitute a specialized microenvironment essential for the formation of memory B cells, B cell affinity maturation and isotype switching. Within the GC, the B cells closely interact with follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and T cells, which both provide stimuli to the B cells that prevent their entry into apoptosis and promote their(More)
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Endothelium plays a central role in the regulation of site and inflammation specific leukocyte migration. Some of the mediators involved in leukocyte migration, such as chemokines, can bind to heparan sulfate on the endothelium resulting in immobilization near their sites of production. Because CD44 variants expressing V3 have been shown to carry heparan(More)
In patients with head and neck carcinomas and in patients with chronic purulent upper airway infections, low molecular weight retroviral p15E-like factors are found. These factors are responsible for partial defects in the cellular immune response. We studied the distribution of these p15E-related proteins in neoplastic, inflamed and normal human tissues(More)