Robert M. Horton

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Germinal center (GC) B cells cycle between the dark zone (DZ) and light zone (LZ) during antibody affinity maturation. Whether this movement is necessary for GC function has not been tested. Here we show that CXCR4-deficient GC B cells, which are restricted to the LZ, are gradually outcompeted by WT cells indicating an essential role for DZ access.(More)
The fluorescent dye benzothiocarboxypurine (BCP) intensely stains nucleic acids. The dye does not penetrate viable white blood cells but does stain these cells following fixation. It has also been found that the dye stains the nucleic acid of viable Plasmodium falciparum. We have subsequently evaluated the staining of P. falciparum by benzothiocarboxypurine(More)
Ovariectomized ewes were treated with 100 IU insulin, iv, which caused reductions in blood sugar and plasma LH concentrations. The effect was prevented by the infusion (iv) of glucose, suggesting that neuroglycopenia and not a direct action of insulin was the cause of reduced LH secretion. An iv infusion of naloxone (40 mg/h for 2 h), which commenced 25 min(More)
To determine whether opiates directly modulate pituitary LH secretion in vivo, morphine was administered to hypothalamo-pituitary-disconnected (HPD) ewes which were receiving exogenous pulses of GnRH. To define the steroidal background which is permissive to a morphine-induced decrease in LH secretion, ovariectomized (OVX) ewes were treated as follows in(More)
To determine whether opioid mechanisms modulate the positive feedback effect of oestrogen on LH secretion, anoestrous ewes were given a single injection of 50 micrograms oestradiol benzoate (OB), followed by infusions of morphine or naloxone. All sheep were injected i.m. with 50 micrograms OB at 00.00 h. In experiment 1, sheep were given i.v. infusions of(More)
The natural opioid ligand, beta-endorphin, and the opioid antagonist, naloxone, were administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to evaluate effects on LH secretion in ovariectomized ewes and in ovariectomized ewes treated with oestradiol-17 beta plus progesterone either during the breeding season or the anoestrous season. Ovary-intact ewes were also(More)
Ewes were sampled during the mid-late luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. Hypophysial portal and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 5-10 min intervals for a minimum of 3 h, before i.v. infusions of saline (12 ml/h; N = 6) or naloxone (40 mg/h; N = 6) for 2 h. During the 2-h saline infusion 2/6 sheep exhibited a GnRH/LH pulse; 3/6 saline infused(More)
1. The antipruritic ability of histamine (H1 and H2) antagonists alone and in combination in experimentally induced pruritus has been investigated in 12 normal human volunteers. 2. A combination of cimetidine (H2 antagonist) and chlorpheniramine (H1 antagonist) proved effective in suppressing itch that was artificially induced by the application of papain(More)
Surgical disconnection of the ovine hypothalamus from the pituitary gland (hypothalamo-pituitary disconnection; HPD) has provided a useful experimental model for studying the control of gonadotrophin secretion. The objective of the present study was to define the characteristics of prolactin secretion using stimuli acting through the hypothalamus or(More)
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