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BACKGROUND Pathomorphologic brain changes occurring as early as first-episode schizophrenia have been extensively described. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated that these changes may be progressive and associated with clinical outcome. This raises the possibility that antipsychotics might alter such pathomorphologic progression in early-stage(More)
OBJECTIVE Few long-term studies have compared the efficacy and safety of typical and atypical antipsychotic medications directly in patients with a first episode of psychosis who met the criteria for schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder. This study compared the acute and long-term effectiveness of haloperidol with that of olanzapine in patients(More)
Brain development in the first 2 years after birth is extremely dynamic and likely plays an important role in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Knowledge regarding this period is currently quite limited. We studied structural brain development in healthy subjects from birth to 2. Ninety-eight children received structural MRI(More)
Although there has been recent interest in the study of childhood and adolescent brain development, very little is known about normal brain development in the first few months of life. In older children, there are regional differences in cortical gray matter development, whereas cortical gray and white matter growth after birth has not been studied to a(More)
OBJECTIVE This 52-week randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose, multicenter study evaluated the overall effectiveness (as measured by treatment discontinuation rates) of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in patients early in the course of psychotic illness. METHOD Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day),(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The early postnatal period is perhaps the most dynamic phase of white matter development. We hypothesized that the early postnatal development of the corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts could be studied in unsedated healthy neonates by using novel approaches to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and quantitative tractography. (More)
Subunit composition of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) dictates their function, yet the ontogenic profiles of human NMDAR subunits from gestation to adulthood have not been determined. We examined NMDAR mRNA and protein development in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area in which NMDARs are critical for higher(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated heart rate variability biofeedback as a method for increasing vagal baroreflex gain and improving pulmonary function among 54 healthy adults. METHODS We compared 10 sessions of biofeedback training with an uninstructed control. Cognitive and physiological effects were measured in four of the sessions. RESULTS We found acute(More)
Using time-lapse maps, we visualized the dynamics of schizophrenia progression, revealing spreading cortical changes that depend on the type of antipsychotic treatment. Dynamic, 4-dimensional models of disease progression were created from 4 repeated high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients (30 men/6(More)
Statistical shape analysis has emerged as an insightful method for evaluating brain structures in neuroimaging studies, however most shape frameworks are surface based and thus directly depend on the quality of surface alignment. In contrast, medial descriptions employ thickness information as alignment-independent shape metric. We propose a joint framework(More)