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Although there has been recent interest in the study of childhood and adolescent brain development, very little is known about normal brain development in the first few months of life. In older children, there are regional differences in cortical gray matter development, whereas cortical gray and white matter growth after birth has not been studied to a(More)
BACKGROUND Pathomorphologic brain changes occurring as early as first-episode schizophrenia have been extensively described. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated that these changes may be progressive and associated with clinical outcome. This raises the possibility that antipsychotics might alter such pathomorphologic progression in early-stage(More)
Brain development in the first 2 years after birth is extremely dynamic and likely plays an important role in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Knowledge regarding this period is currently quite limited. We studied structural brain development in healthy subjects from birth to 2. Ninety-eight children received structural MRI(More)
A 2-item questionnaire was derived from 10 DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Subjects were 362 men, 191 classified as pathological gamblers and 171 as nonproblem-gambling controls. The two items were significant in sensitivity and negative predictive value and significant in specificity and positive predictive value.
OBJECTIVE Few long-term studies have compared the efficacy and safety of typical and atypical antipsychotic medications directly in patients with a first episode of psychosis who met the criteria for schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder. This study compared the acute and long-term effectiveness of haloperidol with that of olanzapine in patients(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated heart rate variability biofeedback as a method for increasing vagal baroreflex gain and improving pulmonary function among 54 healthy adults. METHODS We compared 10 sessions of biofeedback training with an uninstructed control. Cognitive and physiological effects were measured in four of the sessions. RESULTS We found acute(More)
This pilot study was undertaken to estimate the acute antipsychotic effect size and side effect propensity of risperidone and olanzapine in the pediatric population, in comparison to haloperidol, a conventional antipsychotic with established efficacy. Risperidone and olanzapine are widely used as first-line treatments to ameliorate psychotic symptoms in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The early postnatal period is perhaps the most dynamic phase of white matter development. We hypothesized that the early postnatal development of the corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts could be studied in unsedated healthy neonates by using novel approaches to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and quantitative tractography. (More)
A systematic review of the literature identified 64 published English-language papers that used proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concurrently in healthy controls and in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ). A total of 1209 controls and 1256 patients have been evaluated, with 88% of studies carried out(More)
OBJECTIVE The effect of antipsychotic medication on neurocognitive function remains controversial, especially since most previous work has compared the effects of novel antipsychotic medications with those of high doses of conventional medications. This study compares the neurocognitive effects of olanzapine and low doses of haloperidol in patients with(More)