Robert M. Graham

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Blood coagulation, skin-barrier formation, hardening of the fertilization envelope, extracellular-matrix assembly and other important biological processes are dependent on the rapid generation of covalent crosslinks between proteins. These reactions--which are catalysed by transglutaminases--endow the resulting supramolecular structure with extra rigidity(More)
Bisphosphonates are currently the most important class of antiresorptive drugs used for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. Although the molecular targets of bisphosphonates have not been identified, these compounds inhibit bone resorption by mechanisms that can lead to osteoclast apoptosis. Bisphosphonates also induce apoptosis in mouse J774(More)
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regeneration are important adaptive responses to both physical activity and pathological stimuli. Failure to maintain these processes underlies the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with ageing and in myopathies. Here we show that stable expression of a gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in(More)
The alpha 1-adrenergic receptors activate a phospholipase C enzyme by coupling to members of the large molecular size (approximately 74 to 80 kilodaltons) G alpha h family of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins. Rat liver G alpha h is now shown to be a tissue transglutaminase type II (TGase II). The transglutaminase activity of rat liver TGase II(More)
Activation of the alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(1A)-AR)/Gq pathway has been implicated as a critical trigger for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However, direct evidence from in vivo studies is still lacking. To address this issue, transgenic mice with cardiac-targeted overexpression of the alpha(1A)-AR (4- to 170-fold) were generated, using(More)
It is widely believed that perinatal cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation blocks cytokinesis, thereby causing binucleation and limiting regenerative repair after injury. This suggests that heart growth should occur entirely by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during preadolescence when, in mice, cardiac mass increases many-fold over a few weeks. Here, we show(More)
The human transglutaminase (TG) family consists of a structural protein, protein 4.2, that lacks catalytic activity, and eight zymogens/enzymes, designated factor XIII-A (FXIII-A) and TG1-7, that catalyze three types of posttranslational modification reactions: transamidation, esterification, and hydrolysis. These reactions are essential for biological(More)
Two aspect of programming languages, recursive definitions and type declarations are analyzed in detail. Church's %-calculus is used as a model of a programming language for purposes of the analysis. The main result on recursion is an analogue to Kleene's first recursion theorem: If A = FA for any %-expressions A and F, then A is an extension of YF in the(More)
A disulfide bond between two extracellular cysteines, conserved in all G-protein-coupled receptors, is believed to be critical for stabilization of the ligand-binding pocket. The beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2-AR) contains two conserved cysteines (Cys106 and Cys184) as well as two other extracellular cysteines (Cys190 and Cys191). The specificity of the(More)