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A member of the novel protein kinase C (PKC) subfamily, PKC, is an essential component of the T cell synapse and is required for optimal T cell activation and interleukin-2 production. Selective involvement of PKC in TCR signaling makes this enzyme an attractive therapeutic target in T cell-mediated disease processes. In this report we describe the crystal(More)
Human acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), a member of the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases, is one of the important proteins involved in Th2-mediated inflammation and has been implicated in asthma and allergic diseases. Inhibition of AMCase results in decreased airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse asthma model, suggesting that the(More)
MAP KAP kinase 2 (MK2), a Ser/Thr kinase, plays a crucial role in the inflammatory process. We have determined the crystal structures of a catalytically active C-terminal deletion form of human MK2, residues 41-364, in complex with staurosporine at 2.7 A and with ADP at 3.2 A, revealing overall structural similarity with other Ser/Thr kinases. Kinetic(More)
The amino-terminal proline of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) functions as the general base catalyst in the enzyme-catalyzed isomerization of beta,gamma-unsaturated enones to their alpha,beta-isomers because of its unusually low pK(a) of 6.4 +/- 0.2, which is 3 units lower than that of the model compound, proline amide. Recent studies show that this(More)
The crystal structure of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) inactivated by the active site-directed irreversible inhibitor 2-oxo-3-pentynoate (2-OP) has been determined to 2.4 A resolution. The structure of the enzyme covalently modified at Pro-1 by the resulting 2-oxo-3-pentenoate adduct is nearly superimposable on that of the free enzyme and confirms(More)
The catalytic general base, Pro-1, of the enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase has been mutated to Gly, Ala, Val, and Leu, residues with aliphatic side chains. The Val mutant was partially (55%) processed by removal of the amino-terminal methionine to yield P1V/M1P2V, while the Leu mutant was not processed and completely retained methionine (M1P2L). The(More)
The unusually low pK(a) value of the general base catalyst Pro-1 (pK(a) = 6.4) in 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) has been ascribed to both a low dielectric constant at the active site and the proximity of the cationic residues Arg-11 and Arg-39 [Stivers, J. T., Abeygunawardana, C., Mildvan, A. S., Hajipour, G., and Whitman, C. P. (1996) Biochemistry(More)
The protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases is implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes. The PKC theta (PKCtheta) isoform is involved in TCR signal transduction and T cell activation and regulates T cell mediated diseases, including lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Thus inhibition of PKCtheta enzyme activity by a(More)
Protein kinase C theta (PKCtheta), a member of the Ca(2+)-independent novel subfamily of PKCs, is required for T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling and IL2 production. PKCtheta-deficient mice have impaired Th2 responses in a murine ova-induced asthma model, while Th1 responses are normal. As an essential component of the TCR signaling complex, PKCtheta is a(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that was first described as an inhibitor of the random migration of monocytes and macrophages and has since been proposed to have a number of immune and catalytic functions. One of the functions assigned to MIF is that of a tautomerase that interconverts the enol and keto forms of phenylpyruvate and(More)