Robert M. Califf

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BACKGROUND The use of warfarin reduces the rate of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but requires frequent monitoring and dose adjustment. Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may provide more consistent and predictable anticoagulation than warfarin. METHODS In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 14,264 patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as captopril reduce mortality and cardiovascular morbidity among patients with myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular systolic dysfunction, heart failure, or both. In a double-blind trial, we compared the effect of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan, the ACE inhibitor(More)
CONTEXT Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs in 15% to 23% of patients with acute coronary syndromes and constitutes an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. However, no published evidence exists that antidepressant drugs are safe or efficacious in patients with unstable ischemic heart disease. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of coexisting conditions has a substantial effect on the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. Renal failure is associated with one of the highest risks, but the influence of milder degrees of renal impairment is less well defined. METHODS As part of the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT), we identified(More)
BACKGROUND Statin therapy reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular events, but whether the addition of ezetimibe, a nonstatin drug that reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, can reduce the rate of cardiovascular events further is not known. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial involving(More)
A method is presented for evaluating the amount of information a medical test provides about individual patients. Emphasis is placed on the role of a test in the evaluation of patients with a chronic disease. In this context, the yield of a test is best interpreted by analyzing the prognostic information it furnishes. Information from the history, physical(More)
BACKGROUND Ventricular septal defect (VSD) complicating acute myocardial infarction has been studied primarily in small, prethrombolytic-era trials. Our goal was to determine clinical predictors and angiographic and clinical outcomes of this complication in the thrombolytic era. METHODS AND RESULTS We compared enrollment characteristics, angiographic(More)
To develop a brief, self-administered questionnaire that accurately measures functional capacity and assesses aspects of quality of life, 50 subjects undergoing exercise testing with measurement of peak oxygen uptake were studied. All subjects were questioned about their ability to perform a variety of common activities by an interviewer blinded to exercise(More)
Regression models such as the Cox proportional hazards model have had increasing use in modelling and estimating the prognosis of patients with a variety of diseases. Many applications involve a large number of variables to be modelled using a relatively small patient sample. Problems of overfitting and of identifying important covariates are exacerbated in(More)