Robert M. Bowker

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Noradrenergic terminals were identified in the spinal cord of rats by immunocytochemical staining for dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Although immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed throughout the spinal grey matter, heavier accumulations of terminal labeling were observed in the marginal layer of the dorsal horn, in the ventral horn among(More)
The origins of the serotonergic projections to the spinal cord in the rat were determined by employing the retrograde cell marker HRP coupled with the unlabeled antibody, peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemical method of Sternberger. Large numbers of stained neurons (greater than 70%) in the medullary raphe nuclear complex were found to contain both(More)
A simple technique is described for simultaneously visualizing the cells of origin of descending brain stem-spinal systems and immunocytochemically defined neurotransmitters. The combination of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) histochemistry, enhanced by the use of CoCl2, with the unlabeled antibody, peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunocytochemical staining(More)
1. Introduction The hoof wall represents the outer protective structure of the foot and has long been of interest in terms of its growth, structure, and functioning, especially during disease conditions such as laminitis. The incidence of problems related to the hoof wall has been estimated to be 30% or more [1,2]. Although causal factors of some hoof wall(More)
Somatostatin (SOMA)-immunoreactive neurons present in the nucleus gigantocellularis and nucleus raphe magnus formed the origins of a descending pathway from the rostral medulla to the spinal cord. This descending pathway was traced through the central medullary tegmentum and dorsolateral funiculus to innervate the dorsal horn. The location, trajectories and(More)
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points.(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify the density of primary epidermal laminae (PELs) around the solar circumference and evaluate the relationship between regional PEL density and hoof capsule morphology in horses. SAMPLE POPULATION Forefeet from nine 3-year-old Quarter Horse cadavers. PROCEDURES Data pertaining to gross features of hoof morphology and PEL variables,(More)