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The acute central nervous and cardiovascular effects of the local anesthetics ropivacaine and bupivacaine were compared in 12 volunteers in a randomized double-blind manner with use of intravenous infusions at a rate of 10 mg/min up to a maximal dose of 150 mg. The volunteers were all healthy men. They were familiarized with the central nervous system (CNS)(More)
The vision of an ecology of physically embedded intelligent systems, or PEIS-Ecology, combines insights from the fields of autonomous robotics and ambient intelligence to provide a new approach to building robotic systems in the service of people. In this paper, we present this vision, and we report the results of a four-year collaborative research project(More)
We consider distributed systems of networked robots in which: (1) each robot includes sensing, acting and/or processing modular functionalities; and (2) robots can help each other by offering those functionalities. A functional configuration is any way to allocate and connect functionalities among the robots. An interesting feature of a system of this type(More)
We consider an ecology of robots in which robots can help each other by offering information-producing functionalities. A functional configuration of this ecology is a way to allocate and connect functionalities among the participating robots. In general, different configurations can be used to solve the same task, depending on the current situation, and(More)
We consider groups of autonomous robots in which robots can help each other by offering information-producing func-tionalities. A functional configuration is a way to allocate and connect functionalities among robots. In general, different configurations can be used to solve the same task, depending on the current situation. In this paper, we define the(More)
There is a tendency today toward the study of distributed systems consisting of many heterogeneous, networked, cooperating robotic devices. We refer to a system of this type as an ecology of robots. We call functional configuration of this ecology a way to allocate and connect functionalities among its robots. In general, the same ecology can perform(More)
We consider multi-robot systems where robots need to cooperate tightly by sharing functionalities with each other. There are methods for automatically configuring a multi-robot system for tight cooperation, but they only produce a single configuration. In this paper, we show how methods for automatic configuration can be integrated with methods for task(More)
Ventilation-perfusion relationships (VA/Q), assessed by a multiple inert-gas elimination technique, were studied during halothane anaesthesia and mechanical ventilation at different inspiratory oxygen fractions (FIO2). All nine patients (mean age 65 years, five smokers) displayed unaltered VA/Q distributions with increasing FIO2 from a mean of 29% to 53%. A(More)
Alveolar stability was studied during prolonged enflurane anaesthesia by using a multiple inert-gas elimination technique for the assessment of the "continuous" distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q). All 10 patients (mean age: 61 years, six smokers) presented with increased VA/Q mismatching during anaesthesia, with a redistribution of lung(More)
The aim was to study thoracic gas volume (TGV) in anesthetized and paralyzed subjects (n = 16) and to analyze any change in TGV in terms of thoraco-abdominal dimensions. TGV was measured by means of a body plethysmograph, using a super syringe for lung inflation during muscle paralysis. The thoraco-abdominal shape at the mamillary and umbilical levels was(More)