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5-azacytidine treatment of mouse C3H10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts converts them to myoblasts at a frequency suggesting alteration of one or only a few closely linked regulatory loci. Assuming such loci to be differentially expressed as poly(A)+ RNA in proliferating myoblasts, we prepared proliferating myoblast-specific, subtracted cDNA probes to screen a(More)
We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein, Id. Id is missing the basic region adjacent to the HLH domain that is essential for specific DNA binding in another HLH protein, MyoD. An in vitro translation product of Id can associate specifically with at least three HLH proteins (MyoD, E12, and E47) and attenuate their(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the effects of prenatal antidepressant exposure on perinatal outcomes, congenital malformations, and early growth and development. METHOD Within a group-model health maintenance organization, all infants with apparent prenatal exposure to tricyclic or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants were(More)
Expression of a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the mouse MyoD1 protein in a variety of fibroblast and adipoblast cell lines converts them to myogenic cells. Polyclonal antisera to fusion proteins containing the MyoD1 sequence show that MyoD1 is a phosphoprotein present in the nuclei of proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes but not expressed(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the possible toxicity of thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) among infants. METHODS A 2-phased retrospective cohort study was conducted using computerized health maintenance organization (HMO) databases. Phase I screened for associations between neurodevelopmental disorders and thimerosal exposure among 124 170 infants who were born(More)
The mushroom bodies of the Drosophila brain are important for olfactory learning and memory. To investigate the requirement for mushroom body signaling during the different phases of memory processing, we transiently inactivated neurotransmission through this region of the brain by expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the shibire dynamin guanosine(More)
Ambient air pollutant exposure has been linked to childhood respiratory disease, but infants have received little study. The authors tested the hypotheses that subchronic and chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)), nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone increases risk of(More)
The myoD gene converts many differentiated cell types into muscle. MyoD is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix family of proteins; this 68-amino acid domain in MyoD is necessary and sufficient for myogenesis. MyoD binds cooperatively to muscle-specific enhancers and activates transcription. The helix-loop-helix motif is responsible for dimerization, and,(More)
MyoD is a master regulatory gene for myogenesis. Under the control of a retroviral long terminal repeat, MyoD was expressed in a variety of differentiated cell types by using either a DNA transfection vector or a retrovirus. Expression of muscle-specific proteins was observed in chicken, human, and rat primary fibroblasts and in differentiated melanoma,(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of the use of prescription drugs among pregnant women in the United States. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective study was conducted with the use of the automated databases of 8 health maintenance organizations that are involved in the Health Maintenance Research Network Center for(More)