Robert Langer

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CONTEXT Despite decades of use and considerable research, the role of estrogen alone in preventing chronic diseases in postmenopausal women remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE To assess the effects on major disease incidence rates of the most commonly used postmenopausal hormone therapy in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized,(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal. METHODS We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000(More)
CONTEXT Prediction models to identify healthy individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease have limited accuracy. A low ankle brachial index (ABI) is an indicator of atherosclerosis and has the potential to improve prediction. OBJECTIVE To determine if the ABI provides information on the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality independently of(More)
CONTEXT The Women's Health Initiative trial of combined estrogen plus progestin was stopped early when overall health risks, including invasive breast cancer, exceeded benefits. Outstanding issues not previously addressed include characteristics of breast cancers observed among women using hormones and whether diagnosis may be influenced by hormone effects(More)
BACKGROUND Previous investigators have observed a doubling of the mortality rate among patients with intermittent claudication, and we have reported a fourfold increase in the overall mortality rate among subjects with large-vessel peripheral arterial disease, as diagnosed by noninvasive testing. In this study, we investigated the association of(More)
BACKGROUND Higher intake of calcium and vitamin D has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in epidemiologic studies and polyp recurrence in polyp-prevention trials. However, randomized-trial evidence that calcium with vitamin D supplementation is beneficial in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer is lacking. METHODS We conducted(More)
The FTO gene was recently identified as a susceptibility locus for both obesity and type 2 diabetes by whole-genome association analyses of several European populations. We tested for an association between FTO risk alleles and obesity and diabetes in a well-characterized multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women in the United States. We genotyped two most(More)
OBJECTIVES An estimated 6%-10% of US adults took a hypnotic drug for poor sleep in 2010. This study extends previous reports associating hypnotics with excess mortality. SETTING A large integrated health system in the USA. DESIGN Longitudinal electronic medical records were extracted for a one-to-two matched cohort survival analysis. SUBJECTS Subjects(More)
BACKGROUND In recent randomized trials, conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate provided no protection against coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women and may have increased cardiac risk. These trials did not address the role of unopposed estrogen for coronary protection. METHODS A total of 10 739 women aged 50(More)
The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS) was established to explore the predictors and natural history of important causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women, and to serve as a secular control for the WHI Clinical Trial (CT). It enrolled 93,676 ethnically diverse women born in four different decades, from those who came(More)