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The main goal of the present study was to investigate the encoding of a biologically-relevant acoustic feature--amplitude modulation (AM)--in single neurons of the auditory nerve and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). In the anesthetized gerbil auditory-nerve fibers and VCN units show strong synchronous responses to low-intensity, low-frequency AM. As(More)
The peristimulatory adaptation of auditory nerve responses in Mongolian gerbil was studied. Constant-intensity tone bursts were used as stimuli. The time decay of the firing rate following the response peak at stimulus onset was described by fitting two exponentially-decaying components and a constant term to the resulting peri-stimulus-time histograms. The(More)
Individuals with primary trimethylaminuria exhibit a body odour reminiscent of rotting fish, due to excessive excretion of trimethylamine (TMA; refs 1-3). The disorder, colloquially known as fish-odour syndrome, is inherited recessively as a defect in hepatic N-oxidation of dietary-derived TMA and cannot be considered benign, as sufferers may display a(More)
A population survey of 258 unrelated white British subjects showed a polymorphism for the 4-oxidation of debrisoquine. "Extensive metabolisers" (EM) and "poor metabolisers" (PM) are recognisable, 8.9% of the population being PM. Nine pedigrees ascertained through PM probands show that the PM phenotype is an autosomal Mendelian recessive character. The EM(More)
This publication is the seventh in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavouring substances under conditions of intended use. In this review, scientific data relevant to(More)
Rapid changes in sound amplitude--amplitude modulation (AM)--comprise an important feature of biologically-relevant sounds, including speech. In the companion paper, a hierarchy of enhancement for AM processing was demonstrated for unit types of the gerbil ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) [Frisina, et al., Hear. Res. 44, 1990]. In the present report(More)
The Ssn6-Tup1 repressor forms one of the largest and most important gene-regulatory circuits in budding yeast. This circuit, which appears conserved in flies, worms and mammals, exemplifies how a 'global' repressor (i.e. a repressor that regulates many genes in the cell) can be highly selective in the genes it represses. It also explains how, given the(More)
The in vivo pathomechanics of osteoarthritis (OA) at the knee is described in a framework that is based on an analysis of studies describing assays of biomarkers, cartilage morphology, and human function (gait analysis). The framework is divided into an Initiation Phase and a Progression Phase. The Initiation Phase is associated with kinematic changes that(More)
A complex consisting of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) PHO85 and the cyclin PHO80 phosphorylates and is thought to inactivate the transcription factor PHO4 when yeast cells are grown in medium containing high concentrations of phosphate. The CDK inhibitor PHO81 inhibits the kinase activity of the PHO80-PHO85 complex when Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells(More)
This study examined effects of varying magnitudes of intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP) applied for different times on chondrogenesis of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro. hMSCs were exposed to 0.1, 1, and 10 MPa of IHP at a frequency of 1 Hz for 4 h/day for 3, 7, and 14 days in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF-beta3).(More)