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General Circulation Models (GCMs) suggest that rising concentrations of greenhouse gases will have significant implications for climate at global and regional scales. Less certain is the extent to which meteorological processes at individual sites will be affected. So-called 'downscaling' techniques are used to bridge the spatial and temporal resolution(More)
This paper provides a discussion of the development and application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to flow forecasting in two flood-prone UK catchments using real hydrometric data. Given relatively brief calibration data sets it was possible to construct robust models of 15-min flows with six hour lead times for the Rivers Amber and Mole. Comparisons(More)
The impacts of climate change on nitrogen (N) in a lowland chalk stream are investigated using a dynamic modelling approach. The INCA-N model is used to simulate transient daily hydrology and water quality in the River Kennet using temperature and precipitation scenarios downscaled from the General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the period 1961-2100.(More)
The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is novel because it integrates water quality, water resources, physical habitat and, to some extent, flooding for all surface and groundwaters and takes forward river basin management. However, the WFD does not explicitly mention risks posed by climate change to the achievement of its environmental objectives. This is(More)
It is widely accepted that climate change poses severe threats to freshwater ecosystems. Here we examine the scientific basis for adaptively managing vulnerable habitats and species. Our views are shaped by a literature survey of adaptation in practice, and by expert opinion. We assert that adaptation planning is constrained by uncertainty about evolving(More)
Daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature time series from a regional climate model (RegCM2) configured using the continental United States as a domain and run on a 52-km (approximately) spatial resolution were used as input to a distributed hydrologic model for one rainfall-dominated basin (Alapaha River at Statenville, Georgia) and three(More)
Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets could be more powerful because such targets are more directly(More)
1 Securing the supply and equitable allocation of fresh water to support human well-being while sustaining healthy, functioning ecosystems is one of the grand environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, particularly in light of accelerating stressors from climate change, population growth and economic development. Rehabilitation of ageing(More)
Trying to model the rainfall-runoff process is a complex activity as it is influenced by a number of implicit and explicit factors--for example, precipitation distribution, evaporation, transpiration, abstraction, watershed topography, and soil types. However, this kind of forecasting is particularly important as it is used to predict serious flooding,(More)