Robert L. Smith

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FOXP2, the first gene to have been implicated in a developmental communication disorder, offers a unique entry point into neuromolecular mechanisms influencing human speech and language acquisition. In multiple members of the well-studied KE family, a heterozygous missense mutation in FOXP2 causes problems in sequencing muscle movements required for(More)
The in vivo pathomechanics of osteoarthritis (OA) at the knee is described in a framework that is based on an analysis of studies describing assays of biomarkers, cartilage morphology, and human function (gait analysis). The framework is divided into an Initiation Phase and a Progression Phase. The Initiation Phase is associated with kinematic changes that(More)
Individuals with primary trimethylaminuria exhibit a body odour reminiscent of rotting fish, due to excessive excretion of trimethylamine (TMA; refs 1-3). The disorder, colloquially known as fish-odour syndrome, is inherited recessively as a defect in hepatic N-oxidation of dietary-derived TMA and cannot be considered benign, as sufferers may display a(More)
Neuronal precursors and immature cortical neurons actively accumulate Cl- and as a consequence depolarize in response to GABAA receptor activation. With maturity, intracellular Cl- decreases resulting in a shift towards GABAA inhibition. These observations suggest that changes in expression of cation-Cl- cotransporters may have a significant role in the(More)
INTRODUCTION Surgical site infection (SSI) is a potentially morbid and costly complication following major colorectal resection. In recent years, there has been growing attention placed on the accurate identification and monitoring of such surgical complications and their costs, measured in terms of increased morbidity to patients and increased financial(More)
Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are NADPH-dependent flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of heteroatom centers in numerous drugs and xenobiotics. FMO2, or "pulmonary" FMO, one of five forms of the enzyme identified in mammals, is expressed predominantly in lung and differs from other FMOs in that it can catalyze the N-oxidation of certain(More)
This publication is the seventh in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavouring substances under conditions of intended use. In this review, scientific data relevant to(More)
Hit-and-Run algorithms are Monte Carlo procedures for generating points that are asymptotically distributed according to general absolutely continuous target distributions G over open bounded regions S. Applications include nonredundant constraint identification, global optimization, and Monte Carlo integration. These algorithms are reversible random walks(More)