Robert L. Shoeman

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Most genomes of bacteria contain toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. These gene systems encode a toxic protein and its cognate antitoxin. Upon antitoxin degradation, the toxin induces cell stasis or death. TA systems have been linked with numerous functions, including growth modulation, genome maintenance, and stress response. Members of the epsilon/zeta TA(More)
X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded. It is(More)
The ability to respond to light is crucial for most organisms. BLUF is a recently identified photoreceptor protein domain that senses blue light using a FAD chromophore. BLUF domains are present in various proteins from the Bacteria, Euglenozoa and Fungi. Although structures of single-domain BLUF proteins have been determined, none are available for a BLUF(More)
Human cofilin possesses the tendency for self-association, as indicated by the rapid formation of dimers and oligomers when reacted with water-soluble carbodiimide, Ellman's reagent, or glutathione disulfide. Intermolecular disulfide bonds involve Cys(39) and probably Cys(147) of two adjacent cofilin units. The disulfide-linked dimers and oligomers exhibit(More)
Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from(More)
The chromosomal pezT gene of the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a protein that is homologous to the zeta toxin of the Streptococcus pyogenes plasmid pSM19035-encoded epsilon-zeta toxin-antitoxin system. Overexpression of pezT in Escherichia coli led to severe growth inhibition from which the bacteria recovered approximately 3 h(More)
Light is an essential environmental factor, and many species have evolved the capability to respond to it. Blue light is perceived through three flavin-containing photoreceptor families: cryptochromes, light-oxygen-voltage, and BLUF (sensor of blue light using flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD) domain proteins. BLUF domains are present in various proteins(More)
Proteins containing a sensor of blue light using FAD (BLUF) domain control diverse cellular processes, such as gene expression, nucleotide metabolism and motility, by relaying blue light signals to distinct output units. Despite its crucial and widespread functions, the mechanism of BLUF signal transduction has remained elusive. We determined crystal(More)
Electron microscopy of human skin fibroblasts syringe-loaded with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (HIV-1 PR) revealed several effects on nuclear architecture. The most dramatic is a change from a spherical nuclear morphology to one with multiple lobes or deep invaginations. The nuclear matrix collapses or remains only as a peripheral rudiment,(More)
The Trypanosoma brucei cysteine protease cathepsin B (TbCatB), which is involved in host protein degradation, is a promising target to develop new treatments against sleeping sickness, a fatal disease caused by this protozoan parasite. The structure of the mature, active form of TbCatB has so far not provided sufficient information for the design of a safe(More)